Outlook Positive for Manganese Producers

LONDON, February 1, 2012 /PRNewswire/ —

Manganese: Global industry markets and outlook, 2012 (12th Edition)

At the end of 2011, market conditions for manganese products were relatively weak, with a large stockpile of ore at Chinese ports, and poor demand for steel long products. Underlying these factors specific to manganese were low business confidence and economic uncertainty, particularly in Europe and the USA, arising in part from the Eurozone debt crisis.

In the longer term, the direction of manganese prices will depend on a combination of economic growth in the industrialised world, and continued expansion of industrialising and emerging economies in Asia and South America. Recovery, particularly of the construction industries in Europe and North America, could lead to a firming of manganese ferroalloy prices in 2013 and beyond. This, coupled with continued infrastructural growth in China, India and elsewhere in Asia, should result in secure markets and rising prices for manganese. Expansion of Asian automobile industries will also stimulate manganese prices.

Steel production to remain primary use for manganese

Used to impart strength and remove sulphur, the use of manganese in the production of steel will remain the largest end-use. In 2010-11, approximately 90% of total manganese consumption was within the steel industry.

Manganese is an essential constituent in iron and steel and has no satisfactory substitute in this application. In 2011, the unit consumption was 8kg Mn/t of steel, although changes in steelmaking processes and practices have gradually reduced the intensity of use. Over the next five years, the rise in steel production will lead to an increase in manganese consumption, with an annual average growth rate of 6% over the next five years, with China and India providing the main impetus for this growth.

Although steel production will remain the largest end-use for manganese, other areas of growth are of interest.

Global demand for manganese in batteries has been relatively stable at about 300ktpy. This has mainly been accounted for by zinc and alkaline primary batteries, but demand for manganese in rechargeable batteries has risen in recent years. Demand for manganese for primary batteries is likely to show some growth, particularly for lithium and alkaline batteries in China and south Asian countries. But in Japan, Europe and North America future demand for manganese in primary batteries is likely to be relatively flat, whereas use of manganese for lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries) secondary batteries will rise strongly.

Overall, total demand for manganese is expected to increase by around 6% per year over the next five years.

New capacity will enter the market to supply ever growing appetites

As demand for manganese continues rising, new supply will be required to enter the market to satisfy requirements. Some 10Mtpy (gross weight ore) of new manganese mining capacity is planned, mainly in South Africa where three mining projects with a total output of 6.3Mtpy of saleable ore or sinter are planned. The first on stream is likely to be the 2.4Mtpy Kalagadi project.

About 2.3Mtpy of manganese ferroalloy (including Mn-rich slag) projects were being planned in 2011. The largest of these was the 320ktpy Kalagadi installation, which is scheduled to start up in the second half of 2012 at Coega in the Eastern Cape of South Africa.

In China the electrolytic manganese metal (EMM) industry is being restructured which will result in fewer, larger operations. Some 30 EMM producers with capacities of more than 30ktpy are scheduled to be built from 2011 to 2015. Since 2004, some 450ktpy of small scale EMM capacity has been eliminated in an effort to modernise the industry.

Power restrictions and a return of global economic growth will provide impetus for manganese prices

At the end of 2011, market conditions for manganese products were relatively weak, with a large stockpile of ore at Chinese ports, and the restart of silicomanganese smelters in China as power restrictions were eased.

In the coming years, the direction of manganese prices will depend on a combination of economic growth in the industrialised world, and continued expansion of industrialising and emerging economies in Asia and South America. Recovery, particularly of the construction industries in Europe and North America, could lead to a firming of manganese ferroalloy prices in 2013 and beyond.

Existing and projected manganese ferroalloy capacity in the main producing countries (China, India, South Africa, Ukraine and Norway) appears adequate in the medium term, but recurring power restrictions and industry restructuring in China could lead to further short term supply limitations. However, prices are on the whole expected to increase from 2011 levels, potentially rising by around 20% over the next five years.

Note to editors

The report contains 308 pages, 162 tables and 86 figures. It provides a detailed review of the industry, with subsections on the activities of the leading producing companies. It also analyses consumption, trade and prices.
1.1 Production and new projects
1.2 Consumption
1.3 Prices

2 History, properties, occurrence and resources of manganese
2.1 History
2.2 Properties of manganese
2.3 Occurrence of manganese
2.3.1 Manganese minerals
2.3.2 Types of manganese deposits
2.4 Global manganese resources
2.4.1 Ocean nodules

3 Mining, processing and refining of manganese
3.1 Manganese ore mining
3.2 Manganese ore processing
3.2.1 Manganese ore production costs
3.3 Manganese smelting and refining
3.3.1 Manganese ferroalloys High-carbon ferromanganese Medium-carbon and low-carbon (refined) ferromanganese Silicomanganese Manganese ferroalloy production costs
3.3.2 Electrolytic manganese metal (EMM)
3.3.3 Manganese dioxide
3.3.4 Manganese chemicals
3.3.5 Manganese recycling

4 Overview of world manganese production
4.1 World mine production of manganese
4.1.1 Production of manganese ore (gross weight)
4.1.2 Production of manganese ore (manganese content)
4.1.3 Manganese mining companies
4.2 Production of manganese ferroalloys
4.2.1 Producers of manganese ferroalloys
4.3 Production of manganese metal
4.4 Production of electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD)
4.5 New manganese mining, ferroalloy and EMM projects

5 Manganese mining and processing by country
5.1 Argentina
5.2 Australia
5.2.1 Manganese resources
5.2.2 Producers of manganese ore in Australia Groote Eylandt Mining Co. Pty. Ltd. (Gemco) Consolidated Minerals Ltd. (Consmin) OM Holdings Ltd. (OMH) Process Minerals International (PMI) Hancock Prospecting/PMI – Nicholas Downs
5.2.3 Manganese exploration projects Ant Hill – Auvex Resources/Mesa Minerals Shaw River Manganese Spitfire Resources Jupiter Mines Montezuma Mining Company Other manganese exploration projects
5.2.4 Manganese processing in Australia Tasmanian Electro-Metallurgical Co. Pty. Ltd. (Temco)
5.3 Austria
5.4 Bahrain
5.5 Belgium
5.6 Bosnia and Herzegovina
5.7 Brazil
5.7.1 Resources
5.7.2 Producers of manganese ore in Brazil Vale SA Mineração Buritirama SA Ribeirão Manganese project
5.7.3 Producers of manganese ferroalloys in Brazil Vale Manganês Other producers
5.8 Bulgaria
5.8.1 Euromangan AD
5.9 Burkina Faso
5.1 Canada
5.10.1 Buchans Minerals
5.10.2 Other manganese properties
5.11 Chile
5.12 China
5.12.1 Resources
5.12.2 Mining CITIC Dameng Mining Industries Hubei Changyang Hongxin Industry Group Yunnan Wenshan Dounan Manganese
5.12.3 Production of manganese ferroalloys
5.12.4 Production of manganese metal
5.12.5 Production of manganese dioxide
5.13 Congo
5.14 Costa Rica
5.15 Egypt
5.16 France
5.16.1 Eramet Comilog Manganese
5.16.2 Vale Manganèse France
5.17 Gabon Compagnie Minière de l’Ogooué (Comilog) Manganese exploration projects
5.18 Georgia
5.18.1 Georgian Manganese LLC
5.19 Germany
5.2 Ghana
5.20.1 Ghana Manganese Company
5.20.2 Shaw River Manganese – Butre Project
5.21 Greece
5.22 Guyana
5.23 Hungary
5.24 India
5.24.1 Resources
5.24.2 Mine production MOIL Tata Iron & Steel Sandur Manganese and Iron Ore Ltd. (Sandur) Mangilall Rungta Orissa Mining Corp Orissa Manganese & Minerals
5.24.3 Producers of manganese ferroalloys in India Amit Ferro-Alloys & Steels Baheti Metals and Ferroalloys Ltd. Balasore Alloys BMA Group Chhattisgarh Electricity Co. Ltd. Corporate Ispat Alloys Limited (CIAL) Ferroalloys Corp. (Facor) Hira Ferro Alloys Ltd. Jindal Group Karthik Alloys Ltd. Maharashtra Elektrosmelt Ltd. (MEL) MOIL Nav Bharat Ventures Ltd. (NBV) Rohit Ferro Tech Sandur Manganese and Iron Ore Ltd. Shree Ganesh Metalloy Sova Ispat Group Srinivasa Ferroalloys Ltd. Tanushree Inspat Tata Iron & Steel Universal Ferro and Allied Chemicals Ltd.
5.25 Indonesia
5.26 Iran
5.26.1 Iran Manganese Mines
5.26.2 Manganese ferroalloy production
5.27 Italy
5.28 Ivory Coast
5.29 Japan
5.29.1 Producers of manganese ferroalloys in Japan Chuo Denki Kogyo Co. Ltd. Kobe Steel Mizushima Ferroalloy Co. Ltd. Nippon Denko
5.29.2 EMD production
5.3 Kazakhstan
5.30.1 Mining Eurasian Natural Resources Corp (ENRC) JSC Atasuruda Alash
5.30.2 Production of manganese ferroalloys Aksu ferroalloy plant Temirtau Electrometallurgical Complex Taraz Metallurgical Plant ThyssenKrupp/Electro Manganese
5.31 South Korea
5.31.1 Dongbu Metal Co
5.31.2 Samjung P&A
5.31.3 Simpac Metalloy
5.32 Macedonia
5.33 Malaysia
5.34 Mexico
5.34.1 Minera Autlán
5.34.2 Eramet Mexico
5.34.3 Potential mine production
5.35 Morocco
5.36 Myanmar
5.37 Namibia
5.37.1 Purity Manganese
5.37.2 Shaw River – Otjozondu Manganese Project
5.38 Norway
5.38.1 Producers of manganese ferroalloys in Norway Eramet A/S Vale Manganese Norway AS
5.39 Paraguay
5.4 Peru
5.41 Poland
5.41.1 Producers of manganese ferroalloys in Poland Huta Åaziska Stalmag
5.42 Romania
5.43 Russia
5.43.1 Siberian Metallurgical Company
5.43.2 Other manganese mining projects
5.43.3 Producers of manganese ferroalloys
5.44 Saudi Arabia
5.45 Slovakia
5.45.1 Oravské Ferozliatinárske Závody (OFZ)
5.46 South Africa
5.46.1 Manganese resources
5.46.2 Production Assmang Ltd. Samancor Manganese Transalloys Mogale Alloys United Manganese of Kalahari (UMK) Kalagadi Manganese Tshipi Manganese Mining Other
5.46.3 Producers of manganese metal and chemicals
5.47 Spain FerroAtlántica SA
5.48 Turkey
5.49 Ukraine
5.49.1 Privat Group Mining Manganese ferroalloys
5.49.2 Past producers of ore and ferroalloys
5.5 USA
5.50.1 Mining
5.50.2 Producers of manganese ferroalloys in the USA Eramet Marietta Felman Production Inc. Bateman Mineral Recovery
5.50.3 EMD producers Erachem Comilog Eveready Battery Co. Tronox Inc.
5.50.4 National Defense Stockpile
5.51 Venezuela
5.52 Vietnam
5.53 Zambia

6 Overview of world manganese consumption
6.1 Consumption of manganese ore
6.1.1 Consumption of manganese ore by product
6.2 Consumption of manganese ferroalloys
6.2.1 Consumption of manganese ferroalloys by use
6.3 Consumption of manganese metal (EMM)
6.3.1 Consumption of electrolytic manganese metal by use

7 Uses of manganese
7.1 Use of manganese in iron and steel production
7.1.1 Use of manganese in pig iron production Pig iron production
7.1.2 Use of manganese in crude steel Manganese ferroalloys used Steelmaking processes
7.1.3 Crude steel production
7.1.4 Carbon steels Transportation markets Construction markets Other markets for carbon steels
7.1.5 Alloy engineering steels Full alloy steels HSLA steels
7.1.6 Tool and high speed steels Hot-work tool/die and valve steels Cold-work tool steels Carbon tool steels
7.1.7 Stainless steel Types of stainless steel Uses of stainless steel Production of stainless steel
7.1.8 Use of manganese in cast iron Production of cast irons Metallurgy and applications of cast irons
7.2 Use of manganese in non-ferrous alloys
7.2.1 Aluminium alloys
7.2.2 Copper alloys Other non-ferrous alloys
7.2.3 Superalloys
7.2.4 Other non-steel alloys
7.3 Use of manganese in batteries
7.3.1 Types of batteries Primary batteries Secondary (rechargeable) batteries
7.3.2 Production of batteries
7.4 Other uses for manganese
7.4.1 Colourants and pigments Bricks and tiles Frits Glazes Glass Pigments Tumbling media
7.4.2 Ferrites
7.4.3 Welding fluxes
7.4.4 Agriculture Animal feeds Fertilisers
7.4.5 Water treatment Manganese ore Potassium permanganate
7.4.6 Hydrometallurgy Zinc processing Uranium processing Other uses
7.4.7 Fuel additives
7.4.8 Oxidising agents
7.4.9 Odour control
7.4.10 Catalysts
7.4.11 Sealants
7.4.12 Metal coating
7.4.13 Circuit boards
7.4.14 Sulphur dioxide removal
7.4.15 Hydroquinone production
7.4.16 Other minor uses

8 Outlook for manganese demand to 2016
8.1 Outlook for manganese demand in iron and steel
8.1.1 Outlook for manganese demand in stainless steel
8.2 Outlook for manganese demand in non-ferrous alloys
8.3 Outlook for manganese demand in batteries

9 Analysis of manganese international trade data
9.1 International trade in manganese ore
9.1.1 Exports
9.2 Imports
9.3 International trade in silicomanganese
9.3.1 Exports
9.3.2 Imports
9.4 International trade in high carbon ferromanganese
9.4.1 Exports
9.4.2 Imports
9.5 International trade in refined ferromanganese
9.5.1 Exports
9.5.2 Imports
9.6 International trade in manganese metal
9.6.1 Exports
9.6.2 Imports
9.7 International trade in manganese dioxide
9.7.1 Exports
9.7.2 Imports

10 Manganese marketing and prices
10.1 Prices of manganese ore and concentrates
10.2 Prices of manganese ferroalloys
10.3 Prices of manganese metal
10.4 Prices of manganese dioxide
10.5 Outlook for prices of manganese

Manganese: Global industry markets and outlook, 12th Edition, 2012 is available at £3300 / US$5400 / €4600 from Roskill Information Services Ltd, 54 Russell Road, London SW19 1QL ENGLAND. Tel: +44-20-8417-0087. Fax +44-20-8417-1308 Email: info@roskill.co.uk Web: http://www.roskill.com/manganese

For further information on this report, please contact Judith Chegwidden (judith@roskill.co.uk). To be added to our press distribution list, please contact Prakash Ramachandran (prakash@roskill.co.uk).

SOURCE Roskill Information Services

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