The 2nd Annual Effluent & Waste Water Management Conference
By Alice A. Kaudia
Ministry of Environment and Mineral Resources
Effluent Management Landscape
Policy and Regulatory Approaches in Sub-Sahara Africa
Case Experience: Kenya
Regulations and practices
What is effluent
Gaseous or liquid waste pre-treated to defined standards of chemical and particulate matter content that can be discharged to the environment without causing adverse change in the quality of and ecosystem or conveyance infrastructure.
Drivers and triggers of poor effluent management
Weak and dysfunctional governance systems
Out-dated technology and infrastructure
Urbanization pressures are most marked in the mainland states, where main urban centers such as Mombasa (Kenya), Dar es Salaam (Tanzania), Maputo (Mozambique) and Durban (South Africa) are supporting populations of 2 to 4 million each. Populations in these cities have increased dramatically without equivalent improvement in waste management infrastructures.
– The coastal region of the mainland states between Somalia and Mozambique is home to 25 million people. This represents 20 percent of the combined population of the mainland states living on 12 percent of the land.
– Population trends indicate a doubling of population in about 25 years in the major coastal cities of Mombasa, Dar es Salaam and Maputo, which are presently experiencing growth of 5.0%, 6.7% and 7.2% per annum, respectively (Mohammed and Francis, 2002).
Policy and regulatory approaches
– Constitutional provisions ( Kenya)
– Environment Impact assessment Conditions
-Tax rebates of imported waste management technologies
– Over the last decade, governments in Africa have begun to implement stricter regulations regarding effluents discharge standards.
– South Africa, Ghana, Mauritius
Africa-wide Effluent Management strategy is needed
Develop and implement Compliance enhancing programs
– Effective public education and awareness
– Public Health Act (Cap. 242)
– The Environmental Management and Co-ordination Act, 1999
– UNEP/Nairobi Convention Secretariat and WIOMSA, 2009. The Status of Municipal Wastewater Management in the Western Indian Ocean Region. UNEP, Nairobi, Kenya, 82 pp.
– Water (360) Volume 2, number 1, 2012