Climate Change, Agricultural Adaptation and Fairtrade

Contents
Executive Summary v
Acknowledgements viii
List of tables, boxes, figures and diagrams ix
1. Introduction 1
2. Conceptualising Fairtrade in agricultural commodities and climate change 1
2.1 Introducing Fairtrade 1
2.2 Climate science, impact models and trends 1
2.3 Vulnerability, Adaptive Capacity and Resilience 3
2.4 Stakeholder climate knowledge 5
2.5 Climate change impacts on smallholder agriculture 5
2.6 Agricultural innovation systems 6
2.7 Types of adaptation responses 7
2.8 Conceptualising agricultural adaptation 7
3. The effects of climate on selected Fairtrade crops 10
3.1 Plant responses to increases in CO2 10
3.2 Changes in temperature 11
3.3 Changes in precipitation 11
3.4 Implications for crop production 11
3.4.1 Rice 11
3.4.2 Cotton 12
3.4.3 Vegetables 13
3.4.4 Coffee 14
3.4.5 Cocoa 15
3.4.6 Tea 15
3.4.7 Banana 16
3.4.8 Sugar cane 17
3.5 Summarising the evidence 17
4. Assessing the projected climate change impacts on key Fairtrade countries 18
4.1 Projected climate change impacts 18
4.2 Example country case studies 22
4.2.1 Kenya 22
4.2.2 Mali 23
4.2.3 Dominican Republic 24
5. Reviewing the evidence on the impacts of climate change on global trade in
Fairtrade commodities 25
6. Identifying possible adaptation strategies for Fairtrade 25
6.1 Farm level changes 25
6.1.1 Cropping adaptations 25
6.1.2 Improving the effectiveness of pest, disease and weed management practices 26
6.1.3 Plant breeding 26
6.1.4 Irrigation and improved water harvesting and management 26
6.1.5 Soil conservation 26
6.1.6 Diversifi cation of the farming system 26
6.2 Policy and institutional changes 28
6.2.1 Build up climate knowledge of producer groups 28
6.2.2 Encourage all producer groups and enterprises to integrate climate
considerations in their planning and impact assessment 29
6.2.3 Support participatory adaptation processes at community level 29
6.2.4 Provision of fi nancial support for transition 30
6.2.5 Improve on-going access to weather information 30
6.2.6 Contingency planning and crop insurance 30
6.2.7 Agricultural learning, extension and innovation 30
6.2.8 Improving ecosystem stewardship 31
6.2.9 Payments for ecosystem services and climate fi nance 31
6.2.10 Changing the content of standards 32
6.2.11 Livelihood Diversifi cation and Migration 32
6.2.12 Estate agriculture and hired labour 33
7. Conclusions 34
References 38
Annexes 43
1. Development barriers, promoters and climate change dimensions 43
2. Additional Country-level Climate Projections for 2060s, Africa 44
3. Additional Country-level Climate Projections for 2060s, Caribbean/Central America and Asia 45
iv

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