Oupa, a young graduate who is about to enter the mining industry, will have about R7 000 a month to invest and wants to know how best to use this money to secure his financial health in the long term.
As a young man, Oupa understands the power that money has to build his legacy rather than simply spending it on a flashy lifestyle.
“I am not ready to commit myself to less important things,” he says.
Oupa’s initial thought was to use the money to invest in property.
He lives with his mother in a fully paid home and only pays rates and taxes on the property.
To improve his earning potential, he is further advancing his studies through Unisa.
He is paying cash for his studies and does not have any student loans to pay off.
His employer will cover 50% of his medical aid costs.
He will also invest in a retirement fund through his employer.
Oupa will belong to a union and his employer provides insurance for injuries and accidents.
Sinenhlanhla Nzama, a product marketing actuary at Old Mutual, notes that Oupa is in a fortunate financial position in that most people start work and already have debts, such as student loans, or don’t have much money leftover after paying for their basic expenses.
Having a financial plan is important for him, as he will be able to think about his current and future financial positions.
“The desire to invest in property and any other investments should be part of this plan.
“However, before he decides on a specific investment, he would have to ensure that it is suitable for him and can lead to his desired financial future,” says Nzama.
How you can benefit from funds
‘The R48 000 he maintains in the emergency fund from the first year onwards is more than three times his base salary. It can be increased further to six times his monthly salary,” Nzama says.
These savings can build up at a slower rate than his emergency fund, but Oupa could have more than R125 000 after just three years.
This is a substantial amount to buy high-cost items for cash, or place a 10% deposit on a R1 million property.
After five years, he could have the same 10% deposit and about R31 000 cash to cover the high fees involved in buying property (transfer duties, bond registration fees, estate agent commission).
The R270 000 in Oupa’s long-term savings also builds up slower than the medium-term savings, but will pick up momentum as time passes.
He can use this for his retirement savings or to pay for his children’s education.
He could already be planning a family as he approaches the age of 30.
… of Property Investment
Nzama says some other ways of saving for the long term could be for Oupa to invest directly in property, as he indicated his interest in property investment.
Whether investing in property fits his future financial position or not, he would need to be aware of the many risks of direct investment, especially in property.
Some property investment risks include:
» It’s not an easy investment to sell if he needs money urgently;
» It’s difficult to know the right price to pay;
» A tenant is not always guaranteed and if there are months when there is no tenant, he will still have to meet the bond payments himself;
» High running costs such as maintenance, insurance and taxes can reduce the R7 000 he has available each month to R6 000 or less for the bond payment;
» High initial costs such as a deposit, transfer duties, estate agent fees, etc;
» A home loan is a long-term commitment of 20 years or more. If he becomes unemployed at any time, he may be forced to sell the property at a bad time for a poor price; and
» If interest rates rise in the future (and they usually do), then the monthly bond repayment may increase beyond what he can afford.
Plan of action
Month-to-month budgeting on a variable salary
1Oupa’s strong financial position as an earner with no significant debt means that he can get into the habit of “paying yourself first” by saving a portion of his take-home salary before he pays for other expenses.
This could be the R7 000 he has identified as discretionary income or available funds.
He must come up with a monthly budget.
The challenge is that Oupa’s monthly income is not fixed as it is based on a number of factors including overtime, production bonuses, and travel, housing and night-shift allowances.
To counter this, he can work from his basic salary – which is expected to make up half of his potential salary, against his expected monthly expenses, while making sure that he is realistic about those expenses.
He must monitor his spending against his budgeted expenses and see where he might not be sticking to the plan and where he is being unrealistic.
This will assist him in managing his budget more effectively.
Short-term emergency fund
2Nzama says in the first few months of earning a salary, Oupa can use the potential additional income he can earn from overtime and production bonuses to build up his emergency fund as quickly as possible.
An emergency fund ensures you do not touch your long-term savings when times get tough.
Emergencies can include anything from a death in the family to finding yourself out of work due to retrenchment.
Most importantly, an emergency fund ensures you have money available at short notice.
This is why the accessibility of these funds is very important.
Nzama says that, ideally, your emergency fund should be equal to one to three months’ income.
“That level can cover most unexpected emergencies. However, if you use these funds, then you must repay that money into your emergency fund as quickly as possible,” he warns.
Because of the high employment uncertainty in the mining industry, Oupa may need to make his emergency fund equal to at least six months’ salary.
This can cover him for most unprotected mining strikes, temporary unemployment or an injury that would put him out of work.
It would also cover him if his employer’s insurance is insufficient or only pays for medical bills.
3As he starts working, he is likely to want to buy some big-price items, such as a car or furniture for his own home or his mother’s home.
The best thing to do would be to save for these expenses upfront rather than buying them on credit.
The interest he would pay on credit could be up to 30%.
But if he saves up for these expenses over one or two years (even three years, if necessary), he would see much less of his money going towards interest payments.
Nzama says he can use part of his additional potential earnings to save for these medium-term financial needs.
“If he uses 50% of any additional income, that is potentially R6 500 a month, which adds up to R234 000 after three years.
“With this amount of saving, he can achieve a lot more than if he bought things on credit.”
4The main aim for Oupa’s financial plan is to ensure that he saves as much as possible for the long term.
The compounding effect on long-term investments means that his money starts working for him.
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