PRETORIA, South-Africa, October 1, 2013/African Press Organization (APO)/ – On July 31, 2013 the Executive Board of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) concluded the Article IV consultation with South Africa.
South Africa’s economy has made important strides over the past two decades. Rising income levels have resulted in declining poverty rates, and strong institutions and policy frameworks have contributed to macroeconomic stability and greater integration with the global economy. However, in recent years the country’s structural problems that are holding back growth and job creation have come to the fore. The economy has underperformed other emerging markets and commodity exporters, exacerbating South Africa’s already-high levels of unemployment (25 percent) and inequality, and contributing to rising social tensions. At the same time, weak trading partner growth, coupled with declining competitiveness and countercyclical fiscal policy, have led to rising fiscal and current account deficits and made South Africa vulnerable to a prolonged reversal of capital inflows and a further repricing of risk premia. The rand has been one of the worst performing emerging market currencies in 2013, and bond yields rose sharply in May and June as concerns over the Fed’s tapering of quantitative easing and China’s growth outlook led to rising global risk aversion and weaker commodity prices.
The outlook is for continued sluggish growth and elevated current account deficits. Growth is projected at 2 percent in 2013 as weak consumption growth and lackluster private investment offset robust public investment and higher export growth. Growth is expected to rise to about 3 percent in 2014 and 3½ percent in the medium term, as infrastructure investment gradually relieves supply bottlenecks. Unemployment is expected to remain high. A gradual withdrawal of stimulus is projected to result in declining fiscal deficits, but continued high imports for infrastructure investment will likely keep the current account deficit close to 6 percent of GDP throughout the projection period. Quicker implementation of much-needed structural reforms could result in higher growth and job creation.
The balance of risks is tilted firmly to the downside. The main risk is a prolonged stop in capital inflows and a disorderly adjustment in the twin deficits. The trigger could be either external, e.g., a global repricing of risk resulting from an unwinding of unconventional monetary policies in advanced economies, or a further escalation in domestic labor and social unrest. South Africa also remains vulnerable to a further weakening of growth in Europe or a slowdown in China and other emerging markets, particularly if accompanied by a weakening of commodity prices.
Executive Board Assessment
Executive Directors commended the significant macroeconomic progress made by South Africa over the past two decades. However, Directors noted that lower growth in recent years, due to external and domestic factors, has aggravated already high unemployment and inequality. In addition, large current account and fiscal deficits have increased. To address the vulnerabilities, create jobs, and foster inclusive growth, Directors stressed the need for firm policy action and progress on reforms.
Directors welcomed the authorities’ National Development Plan, which outlines an integrated strategy for structural reforms. They emphasized the importance of decisive and timely implementation of this plan. Directors underscored that additional labor and product markets reforms, improvements in the business climate, and trade liberalization will also be critical to achieve faster growth and job creation.
Directors agreed with the need for gradual fiscal consolidation and welcomed the authorities’ commitment to remain within the medium-term expenditure ceilings. If growth continues to disappoint, they saw merit in allowing automatic stabilizers to operate this year, provided financing conditions permit. Directors underscored the need to stabilize debt and rebuild fiscal buffers, and generally agreed that announcing a debt target could help bolster the credibility of the medium-term fiscal outlook. They commended the authorities’ commitment to long-term fiscal discipline and welcomed ongoing reforms to improve spending efficiency.
Directors agreed that the monetary policy stance is finely balanced and the inflation targeting framework remains appropriate. They concurred that the exchange rate pass-through to inflation and wage settlements are critical factors in determining the next monetary policy move. Directors encouraged the authorities to stand ready to adjust interest rates as needed.
Directors observed that South Africa’s highly flexible exchange rate is a considerable strength and should be maintained. Noting the costs of accumulating and managing foreign exchange reserves, Directors in general agreed that increasing reserves will further contribute to lower vulnerabilities. They encouraged the authorities to give consideration to regular and pre-announced auctions to buy foreign exchange as done by some other countries. Directors also encouraged the authorities to promote foreign direct investment and considered that structural reforms are also needed to raise the low household savings rate and improve the external position, which is assessed to be weaker than justified by fundamentals.
Directors noted that South Africa’s financial system is well capitalized, but risks from unsecured lending have risen. They welcomed the authorities’ ongoing efforts to improve the regulatory and supervisory architecture, including the recent adoption of Basel III standards. Directors noted that the rapid expansion of unsecured credit from a low base has contributed to financial inclusion, but highlighted areas where new measures could play a useful role to bolster financial stability and help households deal with high indebtedness. They emphasized that heightened vigilance is important to ensure that these risks do not become systemic and encouraged increased coordination among regulators.
South Africa: Selected Economic Indicators, 2009–14
Nominal GDP (2012, billions of U.S. dollars)
Headcount ratio at $1.25 a day (2009, percent of population)
GDP per capita (2011, U.S. dollars)
Undernourishment (2011, percent of population)
Population characteristics (2011)
Income distribution (2009)
Income share held by highest 10 percent (percent of population)
Urban population (percent of total)
Income share held by lowest 20 percent (percent of population)
Life expectancy at birth (years)
2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
National income and prices (annual percentage change unless otherwise indicated)
-1.5 3.1 3.5 2.5 2.0 2.9
Real GDP per capita
-2.4 2.3 2.8 1.3 0.8 1.7
Real domestic demand
-1.8 4.5 5.1 3.9 2.4 2.8
8.3 7.2 6.0 5.5 6.7 6.1
CPI (annual average)
7.1 4.3 5.0 5.7 5.9 5.5
CPI (end of period)
6.3 3.5 6.1 5.6 5.7 5.4
Labor market (annual percentage change unless otherwise indicated)
Unemployment rate (percent of labor force, annual average)
24.0 24.9 24.9 25.1 26.0 26.2
Average remuneration (formal nonagricultural, nominal)
11.7 13.6 7.2 8.4 8.8 8.1
Labor productivity (formal nonagricultural)
1.7 3.9 1.2 2.0 2.2 2.3
Unit labor costs (formal nonagricultural)
9.9 9.3 5.9 6.3 6.5 5.7
Savings and Investment (percent of GDP unless otherwise indicated)
Gross national saving
15.5 16.4 16.1 13.2 13.2 13.2
Public (incl. public enterprises)
1.0 -0.5 0.8 -0.1 0.0 0.4
14.5 16.9 15.3 13.2 13.2 12.9
Investment (including inventories)
19.5 19.2 19.5 19.4 19.2 19.3
Public (incl. public enterprises)
8.1 7.1 7.1 7.4 7.6 7.8
13.4 12.2 11.9 11.7 11.6 11.4
Fiscal position (percent of GDP unless otherwise indicated) 1/
Revenue, including grants
27.4 27.3 28.1 27.9 27.8 27.8
Expenditure and net lending
32.9 32.5 32.1 32.7 32.7 32.5
-5.5 -5.1 -4.0 -4.8 -4.9 -4.7
Gross government debt
31.3 35.8 39.6 42.3 43.0 44.7
Government bond yield (10-years and over, percent) 2/
9.0 8.3 8.5 7.3 7.3 …
Money and credit (annual percentage change unless otherwise indicated)
1.8 6.9 8.3 5.2 8.8 9.2
Credit to the private sector
3.0 3.3 5.7 9.3 8.0 8.4
Repo rate (percent) 2/
7.0 5.5 5.5 5.0 5.0 …
External trade (annual percentage change unless otherwise indicated)
Merchandise exports (billions of U.S. dollars)
66.0 85.4 102.9 93.5 97.3 99.6
percentage change (volume)
-19.5 4.5 5.9 0.1 5.3 5.2
Merchandise imports (billions of U.S. dollars)
65.7 81.7 100.7 102.7 106.2 108.7
percentage change (volume)
-17.4 9.6 9.7 6.3 5.1 4.2
Terms of trade
8.0 7.3 2.3 -2.2 0.4 -1.2
Balance of payments (percent of GDP unless otherwise indicated)
Current account balance (billions of U.S. dollars)
-11.5 -10.2 -13.6 -24.1 -21.5 -22.7
percent of GDP
-4.0 -2.8 -3.4 -6.3 -6.1 -6.1
0.7 1.2 1.1 0.3 0.0 0.0
Gross reserves (billions of U.S. dollars)
39.7 43.8 48.9 50.7 50.7 50.7
percent of short-term debt (residual maturity)
136.8 145.8 151.6 133.2 133.2 132.9
Total external debt
27.5 28.8 28.1 35.8 35.0 35.5
of which short-term (residual maturity)
10.2 8.3 8.0 9.9 10.8 10.3
Nominal effective exchange rate (percentage change) 3/
23.7 11.3 -16.6 -5.4 -11.7 …
Real effective exchange rate (percentage change) 3/
29.3 12.2 -14.1 -2.3 -8.2 …
Exchange rate (Rand/U.S. dollar) 2/
7.4 6.6 8.1 8.5 10.1 …
Sources: South African authorities, World Bank, IMF INS database; and IMF staff estimates and projections.
1/ General government.
2/ For 2013, end-May data.
3/ For 2013, end-April data.
1 Under Article IV of the IMF’s Articles of Agreement, the IMF holds bilateral discussions with members, usually every year. A staff team visits the country, collects economic and financial information, and discusses with officials the country’s economic developments and policies. On return to headquarters, the staff prepares a report, which forms the basis for discussion by the Executive Board. At the conclusion of the discussion, the Managing Director, as Chairman of the Board, summarizes the views of Executive Directors, and this summary is transmitted to the country’s authorities. An explanation of any qualifiers used in summings up can be found here: http://www.imf.org/external/np/sec/misc/qualifiers.htm
International Monetary Fund (IMF)