Understanding Africa’s slow growth in Intra-Regional Air Transport


NTU-SBF Centre for African Studies

Driving African Economies through the Power of Aviation was the theme for IATA’s Aviation Day Africa Conference held in May 2016. There are a number of issues affecting aviation in Africa, including safety, security, and infrastructure. This paper seeks to re-examine reasons for the lack of air transport interconnectivity between African States. It also considers what is being done to address these problems with the goal of strengthening efforts for Africa’s economic and developmental progress.

Africa’s air passenger traffic is projected to account for 294 million passengers or 4% of global air passengers by 2034. This growth, encompassing travel to, from and within Africa, is dismal, especially when compared with traffic for Asia Pacific with an overall market size of 2.9 billion or 40%.[1]

Admittedly, Asia has 59.94% of the global population. Nevertheless, Africa with 15.96% and being the second most populated continent[2], should account for more than 4% of global air traffic.

Various key drivers of growth in the air transport sector are prevalent in Africa. Urbanization and intra-regional trade have been identified as reasons for the growth of intra-regional traffic between African countries, which has grown faster than domestic traffic over the last 10 years. Africa is also home to an expanding middle class, emerging megacities and a multitude of tourism spots.[3]

Notwithstanding Africa’s growth drivers, the continent’s huge potential for air transport is under-explored. Africa’s failure to integrate and liberalize its intra-regional air transport market has been cited as a significant reason why growth in the air transport market has not reached its huge potential.[4] Liberalisation reduces and/or eliminates unnecessary restrictions, allowing more players in the industry with free access to markets.[5]

Many air transport markets worldwide have liberalized and de-regularized, leading to increased growth and development.  Africa, however, has yet to fully liberalize its intra-African market, relying more on restrictive bilateral air service agreements, hindering economic growth and development.[6]

This paper will focus on intra-regional air traffic between African countries. It will consider why interconnectivity is so limited and what is being done to increase connectivity. This is useful for strengthening efforts towards Africa’s sustainable growth and development.

Intra-African Air Connectivity

Insufficient integration and a lack of an open skies policy are major barriers to air transport growth in Africa.[7] Open air agreements allow carriers of 2 or more countries to operate any route between the countries without interference in decisions about routes, capacity and pricing, making it easier for carriers to provide affordable, convenient and efficient air service for consumers.[8]

To overcome the challenges of air transport growth, the 1999 Yamoussoukro Decision (YD) sought to integrate air transport between African states. It concerned the liberalization of intra-African air transport services, granting state parties free exercise of rights on passenger, cargo and/or mail flights. It also required states to grant first to fifth freedom rights (subject to limitations for fifth freedom rights), fair competition and compliance with international safety standards. Unfortunately, progress has been slow in implementation.[9]

The five freedom rights required by the YD are enumerated by the Convention on International Civil Aviation (Chicago Convention). First and second freedom rights only allow airlines to fly through foreign airspace and land at airports for non-traffic purposes. Third and fourth freedom rights are usually granted together. They allow airlines to put down passengers from (third freedom rights) and take on passengers to (fourth freedom rights) the home state of the carrier. Fifth freedom rights allow airlines to carry traffic to a third country, provided the flight originates or terminates in the partner country.[10]

One reason for the slow progress of the YD is procrastination. States with weak or small state-owned carriers are less willing to integrate fully, preferring piecemeal implementation. Such states are protectionist, fearing that the state flag carrier will not be able to compete with large carriers.[11] Large carriers have to rely on bilateral agreements, as fifth freedom rights under the YD are not implemented. For instance, Ethiopian Airlines pursues liberal bilateral agreements on a reciprocal basis and this has contributed to it becoming one of the largest and most profitable airlines in Africa.[12] As at 2006, Ethiopia had bilateral air service agreements with 46 countries in Africa. Of these, 19 agreements were in conformity with aspects of the YD.

Of the 54 countries in Africa, ten are not signatories to the YD. Five countries – Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Morocco and South Africa – have dominant state-owned carriers. This is contrasted with 20 countries with weak or small state-owned carriers. 25 other countries have no state-owned carrier, relying on private operators. Prominent amongst these are states in West and Central Africa, including Gambia, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Senegal and Sierra Leone, Burundi, Chad, Republic of Congo and Democratic Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon. [13] In 2006, the African Airlines Association (AFRAA) brought together a core group of like-minded, ready and willing states in an attempt to spearhead implementation of the YD on a multilateral basis. More recently, twelve countries, made up of the dominant five, private operators and small state-owned operators, have committed to a Single African Air Transport Market by 2017.[14]

The disparity in air transport development across the region is another important factor to consider in the slow growth.  There are hubs in East Africa, South Africa and North Africa. These hubs account for most of the scheduled capacity in Africa. They link a limited number of key routes, large and medium cities and provide connections to capital cities worldwide. By contrast, West and Central Africa have not been so successful in establishing hubs and many state-owned carriers in these regions have collapsed.[15] It has even been said that West African states are unconsciously building hub airports in Europe and the Middle East as it is cheaper and more convenient for travellers from neighbouring West African countries.[16]

Other reasons that have been given for slow progress are the huge differences in the economic and political size of African countries; a dependency on former colonial powers; limitations to transnational ownership and control of airlines; and poor co-operation between airlines. For instance, many states require that the designated airline must be majority or substantially owned and controlled by one or more states and their nationals. Some require the headquarters or principal place of business be located in the state.[17]

Increasing Interconnectivity

This section will briefly discuss the approach of three of SSA’s national flag carriers – Ethiopian Airlines, Kenya Airways and South African Airlines – to African interconnectivity, focusing on their African strategies, passenger air service and partnerships.

Ethiopian Airlines

Ethiopian Airlines was established in 1945 as a joint venture with an American airline, Trans World Airlines. At the time, it was known as Ethiopian Air Lines Inc. It is 100% owned by the Ethiopian government. Since its maiden flight in April 1946 to Cairo, Egypt, Ethiopian Airlines has made much progress.[18]

Ethiopian Airlines currently flies to 71 destinations in Africa, including 20 domestic destinations.[19] In 1961, the airline created the first direct link between East and West Africa, linking Addis Ababa with Monrovia via Khartoum and Accra.[20]

Ethiopian Airlines has a number of strategic partnerships with other airlines in Africa, which has increased its African interconnectivity. The airline is the major shareholder of ASKY, a multinational private airline based in Lome, Togo. The management contract signed with ASKY has enabled the development of a West African hub in Togo. Ethiopian Airlines also has a 49% equity shareholding in Malawian Airlines.[21]

Ethiopia Airlines has come a long way since inception, and is currently the only major airline in Africa that is profitable. As a matter of fact, in contrast with the other African players who struggle to break even, Ethiopian Airlines has generated more profit that all the other African airlines combined.

Kenya Airways

Kenya Airways was established in 1977 following the breakup of the East African Community and the disbanding of the jointly owned East African Airways. By 1996, the airline was privatised with 26% percent sold to KLM and 51% offered to the public. Kenya Airways signed a co-operation agreement with KLM, agreeing to pool strengths and achieve economies of scale by sharing resources, combining route networks and assessing new markets in SSA.[22] Following a rights issue in 2012, the Kenyan government became the largest shareholder with 29.8%.[23]

As a result of privatisation, Kenya Airways was profitable for most of the years from 1996 – 2012, except for a loss in 2009.[24] However, since 2013 till date, Kenya Airways has suffered dismal losses. In 2013, the airline launched a turnaround strategy focussed on closing the profitability gap, revisiting the business model and securing long-term funding. [25] The airline hopes to narrow its losses and improve profitability through reductions in the size of its fleet and lower fuel costs.[26]

Kenya Airways flies to 43 destinations in Africa. The 2015-2016 half year results (period ended 30 September 2015) indicate a decline in capacity for the African market as a result of low demand to some West African destinations. This is despite the airline’s re-entry into Liberia and Sierra Leone following the uplift of the Ebola outbreak ban.[27] In March 2016, the airline announced flight scheduling changes expected to boost connectivity for African passengers by at least 20%.[28]

Kenya Airways has 49% shareholding in Precision Air, a Tanzania carrier. In order to support Kenyan Airways, the government has reviewed memoranda of understanding and initiated bilateral air service agreements. For instance, as a part of the bilateral air service agreements with Ghana and Liberia, Kenya Airways announced that it will operate between Accra and Monrovia based on fifth freedom rights.[29]

South African Airlines (SAA)

SAA was established in 1936 when the South African government took over the assets and liabilities of Union Airways. In the 1990s, the holding company of Swissair acquired a 20% stake in SAA.[30] In 2002, the South African government bought back the stake and now wholly owns SAA.[31] Through the years, the SAA group faced a number of challenges, including frequent senior management changes and poor results. In order to improve the airline’s financial stability and operational efficiency, a long-term turnaround strategy was announced in early 2013. The turnaround strategy included a focus on expansions into the African continent. Africa is underserved and the airline identified the opportunity for growth through the maintenance of a commercially sustainable African route network.[32]

Currently, SAA serves 74 destinations in partnership with SA Express, SA Airlink and Mango (SAA low cost subsidiary) within South Africa and the continent.[33] It has seen a tripling of its destinations across Africa from 20 in 2010 to 74. Its domestic and African operations are profitable. SAA seeks to add to its African route network, moving capacity from non-performing areas to grow routes that are performing well.[34] In December 2013, the airline’s African Expansion Strategy led to increased frequencies on a number of routes with higher passenger volumes to strengthen its key African destinations.

SAA has code share partnerships with other African airlines. For instance, the Johannesburg, Bujumbura and Kigali route is serviced through a code share with RwandAir.[35] A commercial co-operation agreement with Africa World Airline, a Ghanaian domestic carrier, offers more travel options within the West African region, strengthening its presence there. [36]The domestic coastal route of Durban-Cape Town and the Lanseria-Cape Town routes are served via code share agreements with Mango airlines.[37]

South Africa has signed a number of bilateral service agreements with other African countries beneficial for SAA. For instance, in 2013, during a visit by South African President Zuma to Senegal, both countries expressed the desire to make Dakar a big hub for services to the West African region, calling for the establishment of a well-developed aviation maintenance service.[38] SAA now carries passengers between Dakar and Washington. In 2015, it added flights between Accra and Washington to its services in West Africa based on fifth freedom rights. [39]

Other Players

Implementation of the YD will go a long way in integrating African airline networks. For instance, Nigeria, which does not have a national carrier, but a number of privately owned airlines, has witnessed increased growth in traffic and price reductions to the benefit of passengers as a result of liberalization and the implementation of the YD. Increased connectivity to international hubs such as Cairo, have occurred. Direct routes have been established. This includes the Lagos-Casablanca route, which has reduced travel time by more than 75%.[40]

Regional co-operation through the work of the African Civil Aviation Commission (AFCAC), a specialized agency of the African Union, helps with interconnectivity. In 2007, AFCAC was entrusted with the responsibilities of the Executive Agency for the implementation of the YD. It supervises and manages the continent’s liberalized airport industry, working with States and Regional Economic Communities.[41]

The Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC) and West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) are two regions that have implemented YD to satisfactory standards in their communities. CEMAC grants up to fifth freedom rights, free tariffs, open capacity and frequency for up to two carriers per state. WAEMU grants all freedoms, but has not liberalized tariffs. West African states tend to refuse African states outside their community third, fourth or fifth freedom rights.[42]

The role of other regional and international organizations in promoting the development of an integrated and liberalized air transport sector in Africa, has led to increased interconnectivity. The IATA 2014 report on the significant benefits of liberalized African Air Markets mapping out potential for growth between 12 key markets in the North, East, West and Southern part of Africa, is one prime example. The AFRAA, which has been instrumental in lobbying African states to implement the YD, is another. The United Nation’s International Civil Aviation Organisation has also done work on liberalization in Africa.[43]

The use of low cost carriers (LCCs) can also increase interconnectivity in Africa. LCCs have been used in other continents to boost economic efficiency. In 2006, the inclusion of a South African LCC to the Johannesburg-Lusaka route increased traffic volumes. The LCC was able to operate the route as result of an operating agreement with Zambian Airways. This effectively avoided issues involving states and air service agreements. It also suggests the usefulness of cooperation. Overall, as of now, LCCs in Africa have not achieved expected growth due to political and regulatory intervention.[44]

Finally, airline network co-operation will also increase interconnectivity.[45] Ethiopian Airlines is a good example of an airline that sees value in discovering new markets in Africa and has become a dominant force. In 2016, Ethiopian airlines and RwandAir announced a new alliance, which gives their respective flag carriers’ fifth freedom rights to operate unhindered in each other’s space. The alliance allows the use of one another as a hub for passenger traffic to a third country on the continent. Ethiopian Airlines also partners with Malawi Airlines and Togo’s ASKY. Another example of airline co-operation is the 2015 merger of Djibouti’s privately-owned national carrier, Daallo Airlines and Kenya registered Jubba Airways, operating out of Somali.[46]

Conclusion

Africa has a lot to benefit from a more liberalized and integrated intra-African air transport sector.  With the key drivers of growth for air transport present in Africa, there is the need to tap into this market to ensure economic development and growth.

Progress in addressing the reasons for the lack of air transport interconnectivity in Africa – lack of open skies, insufficient integration, disparity in air transport developments, economic and political clout – is being made, albeit slowly.

Many countries in Africa need to re-examine their bilateral air service agreements. For example, a quick look at bilateral air transport agreements between South Africa and other African countries between 1994 and 2011, show many such agreements have not entered into force and or have restrictions.[47] The 2013 air service agreement between Zambia and South Africa is based on key principles of the YD, including unlimited frequencies and open intra-Africa freedom traffic rights.[48] This is a welcome change from the prior stance where both countries allowed traffic only within selected cities with under-utilised capacity and resisted further liberalization.[49]Another example is that of Kenya and Tanzania, which as of 2015 still had pending issues from their 1985 bilateral agreement that threatened to affect flight operations and bilateral relations between the two countries.[50]

The need for African airline networks to seize on the huge market in West Africa cannot be overstated. Ethiopian Airlines and ASKY have made Lome a hub.  SAA uses Accra and Dakar as hubs for flights to North America. Nigeria, with its huge potential in terms of population and aviation market, should be a sure candidate for a West African hub. However, with no national carrier and limited support for other Nigerian carriers, dominant African carriers are increasingly finding ways to operate in this space.[51]

As Akinwumi Adesina, the current president of the African Development Bank has said, Africa needs to grow well and integrate with itself. The air transport sector provides an opportunity for growth and integration to occur and must be spurred on.

 

Dr Adefolake Adeyeye is a full-time research fellow at the NTU-SBF Centre for African Studies in Singapore. Prior to joining the NTU-SBF Centre for African Studies, she was an adjunct assistant Professor of Law at the National University of Singapore (NUS). Her research interests are in corporate social responsibility, multinational corporations, corporate governance, global governance, international law and sustainable development. She holds a Doctor of Philosophy in Law from NUS.

 


[1] IATA, IATA Air Passenger Forecast Shows Dip in Long Term Demand, 26 November 2015, available at http://www.iata.org/pressroom/pr/Pages/2015-11-26-01.aspx

[2] Statista, Distribution of the global population 2015, by continent available at http://www.statista.com/statistics/237584/distribution-of-the-world-population-by-continent/

[3] Airbus Global Market Forecast 2015-2034 Booklet available at http://www.airbus.com/company/market/forecast/; Button, K., Brugnoli, A. et al, ‘Connecting African Urban Areas: Airline networks and intra-sub-saharan trade’, 2015 (42) Journal of Transport Geography 84-89

[4] IATA and InterVISTAS, Transforming Intra-African Air Connectivity: The Economic Benefits of Implementing the Yamoussoukro Decision, July 2014

[5] African Union, African Civil Aviation Policy, Chapter 5, Air Transport matters, 2011 available at http://www.afcac.org/en/documents/afcap_en.pdf

[6] Surovitskikh, S., Lubbe, B., “The Air Liberalisation Index as a tool in measuring the impact of South Africa’s aviation policy in Africa on air passenger traffic flows, Journal of Air Transport Management 42 (2015) 159-166; IATA and InterVISTAS, Transforming Intra-African Air Connectivity: The Economic Benefits of Implementing the Yamoussoukro Decision, July 2014

[7] Njoya, E., ‘Africa’s single aviation market: The progress so far, 2015 Journal of Transport Geography

[8]US Department of State, Open Skies Agreement available at http://www.state.gov/e/eb/tra/ata/

[9] Economic Commission for Africa, Decision relating to the implementation of the Yamoussoukro Declaration concerning the liberalization of access to air transport markets in Africa, 1999 available at http://www.afcac.org/en/documents/conferences/July2012/yde.pdf; Button, K., Brugnoli, A. et al, ‘Connecting African Urban Areas: Airline networks and intra-sub-saharan trade’, 2015 (42) Journal of Transport Geography 84-89

[10] Arpad Szakal, Freedoms of the Air Explained available at http://www.aviationlaw.eu/wp/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/Freedoms-of-the-Air-Explained.pdf; Boeing, International Traffic Rights: The Freedoms of the Air available at http://www.boeing.com/resources/boeingdotcom/company/about_bca/pdf/StartupBoeing_Freedoms_of_the_Air.pdf

[11] Button, K., Brugnoli, A. et al, ‘Connecting African Urban Areas: Airline networks and intra-sub-saharan trade’, 2015 (42) Journal of Transport Geography 84-89; Kuuchi, R., Assessment of African Open Skies, AFRAA, December 2013, available at http://www.afraa.org/index.php/media-;

[12] Surovitskikh, S., Lubbe, B., “The Air Liberalisation Index as a tool in measuring the impact of South Africa’s aviation policy in Africa on air passenger traffic flows, Journal of Air Transport Management 42 (2015) 159-166; Ch. 3 Open Skies for Africa available at http://pubdocs.worldbank.org/pubdocs/publicdoc/2015/6/123011434746270293/Air-Transport-OpenSkiesChapter3.pdf; IATA and InterVISTAS, Transforming Intra-African Air Connectivity: The Economic Benefits of Implementing the Yamoussoukro Decision, July 2014

[13] Ch. 3 Open Skies for Africa available at http://pubdocs.worldbank.org/pubdocs/publicdoc/2015/6/123011434746270293/Air-Transport-OpenSkiesChapter3.pdf

[14] ATC News, AFRAA’s Relentless Lobbying Prompts African Union to Yield on the Yamoussoukro Declaration, 4 Feb 2015 available at https://wolfganghthome.wordpress.com/2015/02/04/implement-the-yamoussoukro-declaration-now-african-union-members-told-at-last-summit/

[15] Njoya, E., ‘Africa’s single aviation market: The progress so far, 2015 Journal of Transport Geography

[16] Kuuchi, R., Assessment of African Open Skies, AFRAA, December 2013, available at http://www.afraa.org/index.php/media-

[17] Njoya, E., ‘Africa’s single aviation market: The progress so far, 2015 Journal of Transport Geography; Surovitskikh, S., Lubbe, B., “The Air Liberalisation Index as a tool in measuring the impact of South Africa’s aviation policy in Africa on air passenger traffic flows, Journal of Air Transport Management 42 (2015) 159-166;

[18] Ethiopian Airlines History, available at http://www.ethiopianairlines.com/corporate/company/about-us/history

[19] http://www.ethiopianairlines.com/corporate/company/about-us/destinations

[20] Ethiopian Airlines History, available at http://www.ethiopianairlines.com/corporate/company/about-us/history

[21] Ethiopian Airlines History, available at http://www.ethiopianairlines.com/corporate/company/about-us/history

[22] Public-Private Partnership Stories: Kenya: Kenya Airways Privatization, December 2008. http://www.ifc.org/wps/wcm/connect/a0db520049839078823cd2336b93d75f/PPPStories_Kenya_KenyaAirways.pdf?MOD=AJPERES

[23] Geoffrey Irungu and Rawling Otini, Govt now top shareholder in Kenya Airways, The East African, 7 June 2012 http://mobile.theeastafrican.co.ke/News/-/433842/1422952/-/format/xhtml/-/79l2a2z/-/index.html

[24] http://centreforaviation.com/analysis/ethiopian-and-kenya-airways-financial-fortunes-diverge-in-pursuit-of-east-african-domination-123814; http://www.ifc.org/wps/wcm/connect/a0db520049839078823cd2336b93d75f/PPPStories_Kenya_KenyaAirways.pdf?MOD=AJPERES

[25] https://www.kenya-airways.com/global/About_Kenya_Airways/News/KQ_IS_DELIBERATE_IN_ITS_DECISION_MAKING/?dis=y

[26] http://www.africanews.com/2016/03/11/kenya-airways-expects-improved-profits-with-lower-fuel-cost-and-slim-fleet/

[27] https://www.kenya-airways.com/uploadedFiles/Kenya_Airways_2015_2016_half_year_financial_results.pdf

[28] https://www.kenya-airways.com/global/About_Kenya_Airways/News/Kenya_Airways_to_boost_operations_with_new_flight_schedule_/?dis=y

[29] https://www.kenya-airways.com/global/About_Kenya_Airways/News/Kenya_Airways_to_boost_operations_with_new_flight_schedule/?dis=y

[30] http://www.flysaa.com/us/en/footerlinks/aboutUs/briefHistory.html

[31]http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/7252f4b8-cfb1-11d8-b4ce-00000e2511c8.html#axzz49kEHiV6C

[32] http://www.flysaa.com/eg/en/Documents/Financials/SAA_Front_section_copy.pdf; http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/7252f4b8-cfb1-11d8-b4ce-00000e2511c8.html#axzz49kEHiV6C

[33] http://www.flysaa.com/sg/en/flyingSAA/News/South_African_Airways_strengthens_Mauritius_route.html

[34] June 2009 restructuring, http://www.flysaa.com/sg/en/flyingSAA/News/NewsArticle2009-28.html

[35] http://www.flysaa.com/sg/en/flyingSAA/News/South-African-Airways-re-aligns-its-African-Network.html

[37] http://www.flysaa.com/sg/en/flyingSAA/News/Newsarticle2010-22.html; http://www.flysaa.com/sg/en/flyingSAA/News/south-african-airways-and-mango-conclude-second-codeshare-agreement.html

[38] South Africa and Senegal agree on many areas of co-operation, 2 October 2013, http://www.gov.za/south-africa-and-senegal-agree-many-areas-cooperation

[39] South African Airways Secures Ghana 5th Freedom Rights, ch-aviation, 29 May 2015 available at http://www.ch-aviation.com/portal/news/37659-south-african-airways-secures-ghana-5th-freedom-rights

[40] Ismaila, D. “The impact of Air Service Agreement liberalization: The case of Nigeria, Journal of Air Transport Management 37 (2014) 69-75; IATA and InterVISTAS, Transforming Intra-African Air Connectivity: The Economic Benefits of Implementing the Yamoussoukro Decision, July 2014; ATC News, AFRAA’s Relentless Lobbying Prompts African Union to Yield on the Yamoussoukro Declaration, 4 Feb 2015 available at https://wolfganghthome.wordpress.com/2015/02/04/implement-the-yamoussoukro-declaration-now-african-union-members-told-at-last-summit/

[41] http://www.afcac.org/en/

[42] Kuuchi, R., Assessment of African Open Skies, AFRAA, December 2013, available at http://www.afraa.org/index.php/media-center/publications/articles-a-research-papers/2013-articles-and-research-papers/403-an-assessment-of-african-open-skies-by-mr-raphael-kuuchi/file

[43] IATA and InterVISTAS, Transforming Intra-African Air Connectivity: The Economic Benefits of Implementing the Yamoussoukro Decision, July 2014; ICAO, Background to Liberalisation in Africa, 2003 available at http://www.icao.int/sustainability/CaseStudies/StatesReplies/AfricaBackground_En.pdf

[44] IATA and InterVISTAS, Transforming Intra-African Air Connectivity: The Economic Benefits of Implementing the Yamoussoukro Decision, July 2014; Button, K., Brugnoli, A. et al, ‘Connecting African Urban Areas: Airline networks and intra-sub-saharan trade’, 2015 (42) Journal of Transport Geography 84-89; Njoya, E., ‘Africa’s single aviation market: The progress so far, 2015 Journal of Transport Geography;

[45] Njoya, E., ‘Africa’s single aviation market: The progress so far, 2015 Journal of Transport Geography;

[46] Mwiti, L., Ethiopian Airlines and RwandaAIr craft new alliance: What are these African ‘developmental states’ up to? Mail and Guardian Africa, 2 March 2016 available at http://mgafrica.com/article/2016-03-01-development-state-backed-airlines-ethiopian-and-rwandair-lead-intra-african-trade-march-with-new-deal; Regional airlines merge as Somali airspace draws competition, Reuters, 17 February 2015 available at http://www.reuters.com/article/somalia-airlines-idUSL5N0VN2ZF20150217

[47] Aviation Treaties and Agreements Signed by South Africa, 17 July 2008 available at http://www.library.up.ac.za/law/aviation.pdf; see Bilateral agreements signed by South Africa between 01 01 1994 until 15 04 2011

[48] South Africa and Zambia sign bilateral Air Services Agreement, South African Government, 12 December 2013 available at http://www.gov.za/south-africa-and-zambia-sign-bilateral-air-services-agreement

[49] Schlumberger, Charles E., 2010. Open Skies for Africa : Implementing the Yamoussoukro Decision. Directions in Development ; infrastructure. World Bank. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/2467

[50] Elayne Wangalwa, ‘Kenya, Tanzania end bilateral stalemate’, CNBC Africa 23 March 2015 available at http://www.cnbcafrica.com/news/east-africa/2015/03/23/kenya-tanzania-stalemate/

[51] ‘As Nigeria Airlines Lose the West African Market’, ThisDay 29 April 2016. http://www.thisdaylive.com/index.php/2016/04/29/as-nigerian-airlines-lose-the-wafrican-market/


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