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Aung San Suu Kyi to attend the 2nd Myanmar Oil and Gas Summit

Posted on 21 May 2013 by Africa Business

Aung San Suu Kyi gives speech to supporters at Hlaing Thar Yar Township in Yangon, Myanmar on 17 November 2011. Author Htoo Tay Zar. Source: Wikipedia.org

 

It is with great pleasure that we are able to announce that Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, Nobel Prize laureate and Chairperson of the National League for Democracy will be attending The 2nd Myanmar Oil and Gas Summit, Yangon, 17-18 June.

The conference and exhibition which is endorsed by the ASEAN Council on Petroleum (ASCOPE) will also be attended by a delegation from the Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE), local and international oil companies and service providers form throughout the world.

To receive the latest event agenda as well as registration details, please reply to this email and my colleague will be in touch. This is the largest oil and gas event which takes place in Myanmar and we do expect it to sell out again.

SPEAKERS INCLUDE:

Ms Cho Cho Wynn, Deputy Director General, MINISTRY OF NATIONAL PLANNING & ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT / DIRECTORATE OF INVESTMENT AND COMPANY ADMINISTRATION (DICA)

VICTORINO BALA, Secretary in Charge, ASEAN COUNCIL ON PETROLEUM (ASCOPE)

U KYAW SOE, Exploration Geologist, PARAMI ENERGY DEVELOPMENT CO LTD

DR DEVA GHOSH, Professor in Geophysics, Universiti TEKNOLOGI PETRONAS,

U Kyaw Kyaw Hlaing, Chairman, SMART GROUP OF COMPANIES

U LYNN MYINT, Vice President, NORTH PETRO-CHEM CORPORATION (MYANMAR), Former Chief Geologist, MOGE

U AUNG MIN, Freelance Consultant, ASIA PIONEER PETROLEUM EXPLORATION TEAM, FORMER MOGE

U AUNG MYAT KYAW, Secretary Geotechnical Committee MYANMAR GEOSCIENCES SOCIETY

DR ANDRZEJ BOLESTA, Economic Counsellor, EMBASSY OF THE REPUBLIC OF POLAND IN BANGKOK

CHRIS FAULKNER, CEO, BREITLING OIL & GAS

JOHN MCCLENAHAN, Ashurst, PARTNER

JAMES FINCH, DFDL Mekong Group, PARTNER

Kenneth Stevens, Managing Partner, LEOPARD CAPITAL

Sebastian Pawlita, Partner, POLASTRI WINT & PARTNERS

DR EULOGE ANICET NKOUNKOU, Minerals on Energy, INTERNATIONAL LAW OF PETROLEUM EXPERT

Please visit: http://www.myanmarsummit2013.com/

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DC Finance’s CEO will be visiting NYC from June 17thto promote the East Coast Family Office & Wealth Management Conference and the firm’s institutional investment, corporate finance, going public and family office events in Israel. Available for meetings

Posted on 21 May 2013 by Africa Business

 

DC Finance, the manager of one of the world’s largest Family Office events, ( www.israelwealth.com), is proud to present the East Coast’s top HNWI & SFOs wealth management event – The Annual East Coast Family Office & Wealth Management Conference, OCT 2nd, at the Union League Club, New York City ( www.nyc-wealth.com).

We are currently seeking firms who wish to support and join this 1st tier event. Mr Denny Chared, DC Finance’s CEO, will be more than happy to meet firms who may be intrested in meeting our target audiance of SFOs and HNWI.

The event will bring together 200 UHNWI, HNWI and SFOs with an average net worth of $400 million, with 50 of the best speakers in the fields of oil and gas investments, real estate, homeland security, high tech investments, philanthropy, private family banks, families in business, direct investing, family office, estate planning, trusts and other various investment alternatives.

Our current confirmed speakers lisr include: Dr. Yossi Vardi, Mr. Martin S. Indyk, vice president and director of the Foreign Policy Program at the Brookings Institution in Washington D.C., and former U.S. ambassador to Israel Mr. Howard Cooper , CEO, Cooper Family Office | Mr. David Sable , Global CEO, Y&R | Mr, Tewodros Ashenafi ,  CEO, SouthWest Energy Ltd, Ms. Kay Koplovitz , Founder, USA Networks and Chairman and CEO of Koplovitz & Co. LLC. Kay Koplovitz | Mr. Dror Berman , Founding Managing Partner, Innovation Endeavors (The Eric Schmidt Investment Fund), Ms. Wendy Craft , Executive Vice President and General Counsel, Fulcrum Equities | Mr. Lowell Sands , Rosewood Resources | Mr. Angelo J. Robles, CEO, Family Office Association Mr. Munib R. Masri, Chairman, Engineering and Development Group | Mr. David Gorman , Americas Advisor, The Table Club | Ms. Candice Beaumont , Managing Director, L. Investments | Mr. Harold F. “Rick” Pitcairn , II, CFA, CIO, Pitcairn and Chairman, Wigmore Association | Mr. Steve Oyer , Partner, Grail Partners | Mr. Ira Perlmuter , Head of Family Office Direct Investing, T5 Equity Partners| Mr. Nirmal Saverimuttu , Principal, Virgin Group | Mr. Andy Unanue , Managing Partner, AUA Private Equity Partners | Ms. Karen Wawrzaszek , Managing Director, Pitcairn | Mr. Warner King Babcock , Chairman and CEO, AM Private Enterprises, Inc. | Ms. Raya Strauss Bendror , President and Co-Owner, Strauss Investment, The Strauss Family | Ms. Nava Michael Tsabari , Academic Director, Family Business Program, Lahav-Executive Education, Recanati Business School, Faculty of Management Tel Aviv University, The Strauss Family | Mr. Guy Schory , Head of New Ventures, eBay | Mr. Shimon Eckhouse , Co-founder and Chairman of the Board, Syneron Medical |  Mr. Jamie McLaughlin , Owner, J. H. McLaughlin & Co., LLC |   Mr. Louis Hanna , Corigin Family Office | Ms. Kay Koplovitz , Founder, USA Network | Mr. Kent M. Swig , President, Swig Equities, LLC | Ms. Steffi Claiden , Founder/Editor-in-Chief, Family Office Review | Mr. Daniel Shakhani , CEO, RDS Capital

 

 

Other events:The trip also supports The 2014 institutional investment conference , March 2014, ( www.tlvii.com ), The Israeli Family Office & Wealth Management Conference, June 2013, ( www.israelwealth.com ), the “Family Wealth” magazine and advisors sourcebook, The Annual Kibbutz Industries Financial Conference, Sep 10th 2013, The Annual Going Public and Raising Capital Abroad Conference Oct 9th 2013 and Israel’s Annual Corporate Finance Conference, Nov 22nd 2013 ( www.israel-finance.com( .

Firms with an interest in meeting our target audience are welcome to reply to this email and we will do our best to schedule a meeting. Please be advised that due to a busy schedule not all requests may be fulfilled.

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Lithium Market Becoming More Reliant on Batteries for Continued Strong Demand Growth

Posted on 18 May 2013 by Africa Business

Rise in Consumption and Future Demand Driven by Lithium-ion Batteries

Roskill estimates that rechargeable batteries accounted for 27% of global lithium consumption in 2012, up from 15% in 2007 and 8% in 2002. This end-use was responsible for 44% of the net increase in lithium consumption over the last ten years, and 70% over the last five years. In the base-case growth scenario it is expected to contribute 75% of the growth in forecast demand to 2017, when total demand for lithium is expected to reach slightly over 238,000t lithium carbonate equivalent (LCE).

Other end-uses, including glass-ceramics, greases and polymers, have also shown high rates of growth, but are predicted to moderate over the next five years as emerging economy growth slows. The lithium industry is therefore becoming more reliant on rechargeable batteries to sustain high rates of future demand growth. In addition, in the period to 2017 Roskill forecasts that the main market driver for lithium-ion batteries will gradually switch from portable consumer electronics to electric vehicles, especially hybrid variants.

Reflecting the concentration of lithium-ion battery manufacturers and associated cathode material producers in China, Japan and South Korea, the East Asia region has become an increasingly important consumer of lithium products over the last decade. In 2012, East Asia accounted for 60% of total global consumption with Europe accounting for a further 24% and North America 9%.

Growing Supply-side Pressure is Predicted to Stall Further Lithium Price Rises

Roskill’s analysis suggests that the price of technical-grade lithium carbonate, the main product produced and consumed in the lithium market, recovered some of its global economic downturn losses as the market tightened in 2012, averaging US$5,300/t CIF, up 15% from 2010. This is below the 2007 peak of US$6,500/t, but well above the US$2,000-3,000/t levels seen in the early 2000s.

Lithium extraction, which totalled over 168,000t LCE in 2012, is undertaken predominately in Australia, Chile, Argentina and China, with roughly half of lithium output from hard rock sources and half from brine. Production is dominated by Talison Lithium in Australia, SQM and Rockwood Lithium in Chile, and FMC in Argentina. Just over two-thirds of lithium minerals extracted in Australia are processed into downstream chemical products in China, where producers such as Tianqi Lithium (who recently acquired Talison to secure a captive supply of mineral feedstock) operate mineral conversion plants.

Galaxy Resources commissioned a new 17,000tpy LCE mineral conversion plant in China in 2012. Canada Lithium is in the process of commissioning a 20,000tpy LCE plant in Quebec and several existing Chinese mineral conversion plants are also expanding capacity. FMC has increased brine-based processing capacity by a third in Argentina, while nearby Orocobre is also constructing a new brine-based operation due to be completed in 2014. In addition, Rockwood Lithium plans to complete a 20,000tpy LCE expansion in Chile in 2014. Combined, this additional capacity totals just under 100,000tpy LCE, enough to meet forecast demand to 2017.

As the opening of new and expanded capacity is concentrated over the next two years, Roskill forecasts that the lithium market could witness increased competition and supply-side pressure on pricing, with prices for technical-grade lithium carbonate potentially falling back to around US$5,000/t CIF in 2014.

Lithium: Market Outlook to 2017 (12th edition)is available at a price of £4900 / US$7900 / €6200 from Roskill Information Services Ltd, 54 Russell Road, London SW19 1QL ENGLAND.

Tel: +44-(0)20-8417-0087. Fax +44-(0)20-8417-1308.

Email: info@roskill.co.uk Web: http://www.roskill.com/lithium

Note to editors

The report contains 426 pages, 245 tables and 99 figures. It provides a detailed review of the industry, with subsections on the activities of the leading producing companies. It also analyses consumption, trade and prices.

Table of Contents

Page

1.         Summary    1

2.         Lithium Mineralogy, Occurrences and Reserves    10

2.1        Occurrence of lithium    10

2.1.1      Lithium minerals    10

2.1.2      Lithium clays    12

2.1.3      Lithium brines    12

2.2        Lithium reserves    14

3.         Lithium mining and processing    16

3.1        Extraction and processing of lithium brines    17

3.1.1      Other methods of brine extraction    20

3.2        Mining and processing of lithium minerals    21

3.3        Processing lithium mineral concentrates to lithium compounds    23

3.4        Processing lithium bearing clays into lithium compounds    26

3.5        Lithium compounds and chemicals    27

3.6        Production costs    30

4.         Production of lithium    34

4.1        Lithium production by source    35

4.1.1      Production of Lithium Minerals    37

4.1.2      Production from Lithium Brines    39

4.1.3      Production of lithium compounds from mineral conversion    41

4.1.4      Production of downstream lithium chemicals    43

4.2        Outlook for production capacity of lithium to 2017    44

4.2.1      Outlook for production capacity of lithium minerals    45

4.2.2      Outlook for lithium production capacity from brines    48

4.2.3      Outlook on lithium compound production from mineral conversion    51

4.3        Forecast production of lithium to 2017    52

5.         Review of lithium producing countries    55

5.1        Afghanistan 55

5.2        Argentina 56

5.2.1      FMC Litihum (MineradelAltiplano S.A.)    58

5.2.2      ADY Resources    59

5.2.3      Lithium Americas    61

5.2.4      Galaxy Resources (Lithium 1)    66

5.2.4.1    Sal de Vida Project    66

5.2.4.2    James Bay Hard-rock Lithium Project    68

5.2.5      Orocobre Ltd.    69

5.2.5.1    Salar de Olaroz    71

5.2.5.2    Salinas Grandes (Cangrejillo)    74

5.2.5.3    Guayatoyoc Project    74

5.2.5.4    Cauchari Project    75

5.2.6      Rodinia Lithium Inc.    76

5.2.6.1    Rodinia Lithium USA 78

5.2.7      Marifil Mines Ltd.    78

5.2.8      International Lithium Corporation    79

5.2.9      Other prospects for Lithium Production    79

5.3        Australia 80

5.3.1      Talison Lithium    82

5.3.1.1    Resources and Reserves    82

5.3.1.2    Production    85

5.3.1.3    Products    86

5.3.2      Galaxy Resources Ltd.    87

5.3.2.1    Reserves and Resources    88

5.3.2.2    Production    90

5.3.3      Reed Resources Ltd.    91

5.3.4      Altura Mining Ltd.    92

5.3.5      Artemis Resources    93

5.3.6      Amerilithium    93

5.3.7      Reward Minerals    93

5.4        Austria 93

5.5        Belgium 94

5.6        Bolivia 96

5.6.1      Salar de Uyuni 97

5.6.2      Salar de Coipasa    99

5.6.3      New World Resource Corp.    99

5.7        Brazil 100

5.7.1      CompanhiaBrasileira de Litio    102

5.7.2      Arqueana de Minérios e Metais Ltda.    103

5.7.3      Advance Metallurgical Group (AMG)    104

5.8        Canada 104

5.8.1      Lithium resources in Canada 105

5.8.2      Canadian trade in lithium    107

5.8.3      Past producers of lithium in Canada 108

5.8.3.1    Tantalum Mining Corp. of Canada Ltd. (TANCO)    108

5.8.4      Potential new producers of lithium in Canada 109

5.8.4.1    Canada Lithium Corp.    109

5.8.4.2    Nemaska Lithium    112

5.8.4.3    Avalon Rare Metals Inc.    115

5.8.4.4    Perilya Limited    116

5.8.4.5    Rock Tech Lithium Inc.    117

5.8.4.6    Critical Elements Corporation    120

5.8.4.7    Glen Eagle Resources Inc.    120

5.8.4.8    Aben Resources Ltd.    121

5.8.4.9    Toxco Inc. Canada 122

5.8.4.10   Other Canadian Lithium Projects    122

5.9        Chile 126

5.9.1      Chilean lithium reserves    127

5.9.2      Chilean lithium production    127

5.9.3      Special Lithium Operations Contracts (CEOLs)    128

5.9.4      SociedadQuímica y Minera    129

5.9.4.1    Reserves and Resources    130

5.9.4.2    Production    131

5.9.4.3    Products    132

5.9.4.4    Markets    134

5.9.4.5    Exports    135

5.9.5      Rockwood Litihum (Salar de Atacama and La Negra Plant)    136

5.9.6      Simbalik Group    138

5.9.7      Li3 Energy Inc.    139

5.9.7.1    Maricunga Property    139

5.9.7.2    Li3 Energy Peruvian Projects    141

5.9.8      First Potash Corp.    141

5.9.9      CODELCO    142

5.9.10 Mammoth Energy Group Inc.    142

5.9.11 Lomiko Metals Inc.    143

5.9.12 Errázuriz Lithium    143

5.9.13 Exports of litihum from Chile 143

5.10       China 146

5.10.1     Chinese reserves of lithium    147

5.10.1.1   Lithium Mineral Reserves    147

5.10.1.2   Lithium Brine Reserves    148

5.10.2     Production of lithium    149

5.10.2.1   Mineral Production    150

5.10.2.2   Brine Production    151

5.10.2.3   Lithium Chemicals and Metal Production    152

5.10.3     Chinese trade in lithium    155

5.10.4     Chinese lithium brine producers    157

5.10.4.1   Tibet Lithium New Technology Development Co. Ltd.    157

5.10.4.2   Qinghai CITIC Guoan Technology Development Co. Ltd.    159

5.10.4.3   Qinghai Salt Lake Industry Co. Ltd.    160

5.10.4.4   Qinghai Lanke Lithium Industry Co. Ltd.    161

5.10.4.5   Tibet Sunrise Mining Development Ltd.    162

5.10.4.6   China MinMetals Non-Ferrous Metals Co. Ltd    163

5.10.5     Chinese lithium mineral producers    163

5.10.5.1   Fujian Huamin Import & Export Co. Ltd.    163

5.10.5.2   YichunHuili Industrial Co. Ltd.    164

5.10.5.3   GanZiRongda Lithium Co., Ltd.    164

5.10.5.4   Sichuan HidiliDexin Mineral Industry    165

5.10.5.5   Xinjiang Non-Ferrous Metals (Group) Ltd.    166

5.10.6     Chinese lithium mineral producers with mineral conversion capacity    166

5.10.6.1   Jiangxi Western Resources Lithium Industry    166

5.10.6.2   Sichuan Aba Guangsheng Lithium Co. Ltd.    167

5.10.6.3   Minfeng Lithium Co. Ltd.    167

5.10.6.4   Sichuan Ni&CoGuorun New Materials Co. Ltd.    168

5.10.7     Chinese mineral conversion plants    169

5.10.7.1   Sichuan Tianqi Lithium Shareholding Co. Ltd.    169

5.10.7.2   Galaxy Resources (Jiangsu Lithium Carbonate Plant)    171

5.10.7.3   General Lithium (Haimen) Corp.    172

5.10.7.4   China Non-Ferrous Metal Import & Export Xinjiang Corp.    173

5.10.7.5   Sichuan State Lithium Materials Co. Ltd.    174

5.10.7.6   Jiangxi Ganfeng Lithium Co. Ltd.    174

5.10.7.7   Sichuan Chenghehua Lithium Technology Co. Ltd.    176

5.10.8     Chinese lithium chemical producers    176

5.10.9     Specialist lithium bromide producers    177

5.10.10 Specialist lithium metal producers    178

5.11       Czech Republic 179

5.12       Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)    179

5.13       Finland 180

5.13.1     KeliberOy    180

5.13.2     Nortec Minerals Corp.    181

5.13.3     Leviäkangas Deposit    182

5.13.4     Syväjärvi Deposit    182

5.14       France 182

5.15       Germany 184

5.15.1     Rockwood Lithium (Langelsheim Plant)    185

5.15.2     Helm AG    185

5.15.3     Lithium exploration in Germany 185

5.16       Greece 186

5.17       India 186

5.17.1     FMC India Private Ltd.    188

5.17.2     Rockwood Lithium    188

5.18       Ireland 189

5.19       Israel 189

5.20       Japan 190

5.21       Kazakhstan 192

5.22       Mali 193

5.23       Mexico 193

5.23.1     LitioMex S.A. de C.V. (PieroSutti S.A. de C.V.)    193

5.23.2     First Potash Corp. (Mexico)    195

5.23.3     Bacanora Minerals Ltd.    195

5.24       Mongolia 196

5.25       Mozambique 196

5.26       Namibia 197

5.27       Netherlands 198

5.28       Portugal 199

5.28.1     SociedadMineira de Pegmatites    200

5.29       Russia 200

5.29.1     Russian Lithium Reserves and Resources    201

5.29.2     Russian Lithium Production    202

5.29.2.1   JSC Chemical and Metallurgical Plant    202

5.29.2.2   JSC Novosibirsk Chemical Concentration Plant    203

5.29.3     Russian Imports and Exports of Lithium    204

5.30       Serbia    205

5.31       South Africa 206

5.32       South Korea 206

5.33       Spain 207

5.33.1     Minera Del Duero 208

5.33.2     Solid Resources Ltd.    209

5.34       Taiwan 209

5.35       Tajikistan 210

5.36       Turkey 210

5.37       UK    211

5.38       Ukraine 212

5.39       USA 212

5.39.1     Trade in lithium to/from the USA 213

5.39.2     Rockwood Lithium (Chemetall Group)    214

5.39.2.1   Silver Peak, Kings Mountain and New Johnsonville operations (USA)    215

5.39.3     FMC Corporation    216

5.39.3.1   FMC Lithium    217

5.39.3.2   Other FMC Corporation facilities    218

5.39.4     Western Lithium Corporation    219

5.39.5     Simbol Materials Corp.    222

5.39.6     Albemarle Corporation    223

5.39.7     Toxco Inc.    223

5.39.8     AusAmerican Mining Corp. Ltd.    223

5.39.9     Other USA Companies    224

5.40       Uzbekistan 226

5.41       Zimbabwe 226

5.41.1     Bikita Minerals Ltd    227

5.41.2     Zimbabwe Mining Development Corporation    228

5.41.3     Premier African Minerals    228

5.41.4     Cape Range Ltd.    229

6.         International trade in lithium    230

6.1        Trade in lithium carbonate    230

6.2        Trade in lithium hydroxide and oxides    233

6.3        Trade in lithium chloride    236

6.4        Trade in mineral concentrates    237

6.5        Trade in lithium brines    238

7.         Consumption of lithium    239

7.1        Consumption of lithium by end-use    239

7.2        Consumption of lithium by country/region    243

7.3        Consumption of lithium by product    245

7.4        Outlook for consumption of lithium by end-use    247

7.5        Outlook for lithium consumption by product    251

8.         Use of lithium in rechargeable batteries    253

8.1        Types of rechargeable batteries    253

8.1.1      Lithium-ion batteries    254

8.1.2      Lithium metal polymer batteries    256

8.1.3      Lithium-sulphur batteries    256

8.1.4      Lithium-air batteries    258

8.1.5      NiMH and NiCd batteries    258

8.2        Production of rechargeable batteries    258

8.2.1      Producers of rechargeable lithium batteries    261

8.2.2      Producers of nickel metal hydride batteries    262

8.3        Production of rechargeable lithium battery materials    262

8.3.1      Producers of rechargeable lithium battery materials    264

8.3.1.1    Cathode materials    264

8.3.1.2    Electrolyte salts    267

8.3.1.3    Anode materials    268

8.4        Consumption of rechargeable lithium batteries    268

8.4.1      Computing, communication and consumer (3C) market    269

8.4.2      Power devices and motive power    270

8.4.3      Heavy duty applications    272

8.4.4      Transportation    272

8.5        Consumption of NiMH and NiCd batteries    274

8.6        Consumption of lithium in rechargeable batteries    274

8.7        Outlook for demand for rechargeable batteries    278

8.8        Outlook for consumption of lithium in rechargeable batteries    281

9.         Use of lithium in ceramics    284

9.1        Use of lithium in ceramics    284

9.2        Production and consumption of ceramics    286

9.2.1      Ceramic tiles    287

9.2.1.1    Producers of ceramic tiles    289

9.2.2      Sanitaryware    291

9.2.2.1    Producers of sanitaryware    291

9.2.3      Tableware    293

9.2.3.1    Producers of tableware    294

9.2.4      Cookware and bakeware    295

9.3        Production and consumption of glazes and enamels    295

9.3.1      Producers of glazes and enamels    297

9.4        Outlook for ceramics production and consumption    298

9.5        Consumption of lithium in ceramics    299

9.5.1      Outlook for lithium demand in ceramics    300

10.        Use of lithium in glass-ceramics    302

10.1       Use of lithium in glass-ceramics    302

10.2       Production and consumption of glass-ceramics    304

10.2.1     Producers of glass-ceramics    305

10.3       Consumption of lithium in glass-ceramics    306

11.        Use of lithium in lubricating grease    309

11.1       Types of lubricating grease    309

11.2       Production of grease    311

11.2.1     Producers of lithium grease    314

11.3       Consumption of lithium greases    317

11.4       Consumption of lithium in greases    320

11.4.1     Outlook for demand for lithium in greases    321

12.        Use of lithium in glass    323

12.1       Use of lithium in glass    323

12.2       Production and consumption of glass    325

12.2.1     Container glass    326

12.2.2     Fibreglass    329

12.2.3     Speciality glass    330

12.3       Consumption of lithium in glass    330

12.3.1     Outlook for demand for lithium in glass    331

13.        Use of lithium in metallurgical powders    333

13.1       Continuous casting    333

13.1.1     Producers of continuous casting mould powders    334

13.1.2     Continually cast steel production    334

13.1.3     Consumption of continuous casting mould powders    335

13.1.4     Consumption of lithium in continuous casting mould powders    335

13.2       Traditional metal casting    337

13.3       Outlook for demand for lithium in casting powders    337

14.        Use of lithium in polymers    338

14.1       Types of polymers    338

14.2       Production of polymers    340

14.2.1     Producers of polymers    342

14.3       Consumption of polymers    344

14.4       Consumption of lithium in polymers    348

14.4.1     Outlook for lithium demand in polymers    348

15.        Use of lithium in air treatment    350

15.1       Absorption chillers    350

15.1.1     Production of absorption chillers    351

15.1.2     Producers of adsorption chillers    352

15.1.3     Producers of lithium bromide for absorption chillers    354

15.1.4     Consumption of lithium in absorption chillers    356

15.2       Dehumidification    357

15.2.1     Production of desiccant dehumidification systems    358

15.2.2     Producers of desiccant dehumidification systems    358

15.2.3     Consumption of lithium in desiccant dehumidifiers    359

15.3       Air purification    359

15.5       Outlook for demand for lithium in air treatment    360

16.        Use of lithium in primary batteries    362

16.1       Types of primary batteries    362

16.2       Production of lithium primary batteries    365

16.2.1     Producers of lithium primary batteries    367

16.3       Trade in primary batteries    369

16.4       Production of primary lithium battery materials    370

16.4.1     Producers of lithium primary battery anodes    371

16.5       Consumption of lithium primary batteries    373

16.5.1     Outlook for primary lithium battery consumption    374

16.6       Consumption of lithium in primary batteries    374

16.6.1     Outlook for demand for lithium in primary batteries    377

17.        Use of lithium in aluminium smelting    378

17.1       Process of aluminium smelting    378

17.2       Consumers of lithium in aluminium smelting    380

17.3       Consumption of lithium in aluminium smelting    382

17.3.1     Outlook for lithium demand in aluminium smelting    383

18.        Minor end-uses for lithium    385

18.1       Sanitization    385

18.2       Organic synthesis    386

18.3       Construction    388

18.4       Alkyd resins    388

18.5       Alloys    391

18.5.1     Aluminium-lithium alloy    391

18.5.1.1   Producers of aluminium-lithium alloys    394

18.5.1.2   Applications for aluminium-lithium alloys    395

18.5.1.3   Consumption of lithium in aluminium-lithium alloys    398

18.5.1.4   Outlook for demand for lithium in aluminium-lithium alloys    398

18.5.2     Magnesium-lithium alloy    400

18.6       Electronics    400

18.7       Analytical agents    402

18.8       Dyestuffs    402

18.9       Metallurgy    402

18.10      Photographic industry    402

18.11      Welding fluxes    402

18.12      Electrochromic glass    403

18.13      Pharmaceuticals    403

18.13.1    Producers of lithium-based pharmaceuticals    404

18.13.2    Production and consumption of lithium-based pharmaceuticals    404

18.13.3    Consumption of lithium in pharmaceuticals    405

18.14      Speciality lithium inorganics    405

19.        Prices of lithium    408

19.1       Technical-grade lithium mineral prices    409

19.2       Chemical-grade spodumene prices    412

19.3       Technical-grade lithium carbonate prices    413

19.4       Battery-grade lithium carbonate    415

19.5       Technical-grade lithium hydroxide prices    416

19.6       Battery-grade lithium hydroxide prices    418

19.7       Lithium chloride prices    419

19.8       Lithium metal prices    420

19.9       Outlook for lithium prices    421

19.9.1     Technical-grade lithium carbonate prices    421

19.9.2     Battery-grade lithium carbonate prices    424

19.9.3     Technical-grade lithium mineral prices    425

19.9.4     Chemical-grade spodumene prices    425

19.9.5     Lithium hydroxide prices    426

List of Tables

Page

Table 1: World: Forecast nominal and real prices for technical-grade lithium carbonate, 2012 to 2017     8

Table 2: Properties of lithium    10

Table 3: Significant lithium minerals    11

Table 4: Major lithium bearing smectite group members    12

Table 5: Brine concentrations at selected deposits    13

Table 6: Lithium reserves by country     15

Table 7: Composition of standard lithium concentrates     22

Table 8: Specifications for lithium carbonate produced by SQM and Rockwood Lithium     28

Table 9: Specifications for lithium carbonate produced by other suppliers     28

Table 10: Battery grade lithium hydroxide product specifications of major producers      29

Table 11: Production of lithium by country and company, 2005 to 2012     35

Table 12: Capacity and production of lithium minerals by company, 2011 to 2012     39

Table 13: Capacity and production of lithium compounds from brine-based producers, 2011 to 2012     40

Table 14: Capacity and production of lithium mineral converters, 2011 to 2012     42

Table 15: Production of lithium compounds from minerals, 2005 to 2012     43

Table 16: Planned expansions as reported by existing lithium mineral producers to 2017     46

Table 17: Potential lithium mineral producers to 2017     47

Table 18: Planned expansions by existing lithium brine producers to 2017     49

Table 19: Potential new lithium brine projects to 2017     50

Table 20: Planned expansions to production capacity for existing and potential mineral conversion plants     51

Table 21: Afghanistan: Spodumene bearing pegmatites identified in Nuristan, Badakhshan, Nangarhar, Lagman and Uruzgan provinces    55

Table 22: Argentina: Exports of lithium carbonate, 2004 to 2012     57

Table 23: Argentina: Exports of lithium chloride, 2004 to 2012     58

Table 24:FMC: Brine reserves at the Salar del Hombre Muerto    58

Table 25: FMC: Production and value of lithium carbonate and chloride at the Salta plant, Argentina 2005 to 2012     59

Table 26: ADY Resources: Salar del Rincón reserve estimation, 2007    60

Table 27: Lithium Americas: Lithium and potash resource estimation for the Cauchari-Olaroz property, July 2012 61

Table 28: Lithium Americas: Lithium and potash reserve estimation for the Cauchari-Olaroz property, July 2012 61

Table 29: Lithium Americas: Estimated capital costs for Lithium carbonate production at the Cauchari-Olaroz project, July 2012 63

Table 30: Lithium Americas: Estimated operating costs for Cauchari-Olaroz project, July 2012 65

Table 31: Galaxy Resources: Resource estimation for the Sal de Vida project, January 2012 66

Table 32: Galaxy Resources: Reserve estimate for the Sal de Vida project, April 2013 67

Table 33: Galaxy Resources: Estimated capital costs for Sal de Vida project, October 2011 68

Table 34: Orocobre: Agreements between Borax Argentina and other lithium companies    70

Table 35: Orocobre: Resource estimation for the Salar de Olaroz project, May 2011 71

Table 36: Orocobre: Assay results of first battery grade lithium carbonate product from the Orocobre pilot plant    72

Table 37: Orocobre: Capital costs for 16,400tpy LCE operation at the Salar de Olaroz, May 2011 73

Table 38: Orocobre: Operating costs for battery grade lithium carbonate for the Salar de Olaroz, May 2011 73

Table 39: Orocobre: Resource estimation for the Salinas Grande project, April 2012 74

Table 40: Orocobre: Averaged assay results from pit sampling of brine at the Guayatoyoc project    75

Table 41: Orocobre: Maiden resource estimation for the Salar de Cauchari project, October 2012 75

Table 42: Rodinia Lithium: Salar de Diablillos resource estimation, March 2011 76

Table 43: Rodinia Lithium: Estimated capital costs for the Salar de Diablillos project    77

Table 44: Rodinia Lithium: Estimated operating costs for the Salar de Diablillos project    77

Table 45: Rodinia Lithium: Other Argentine lithium projects    78

Table 46: Australia: Exports of mineral substances NES (excl. natural micaceous iron oxides) 2005 to 2012     81

Table 47: Australia: Unit value of mineral substances NES (excl. natural micaeous iron oxides) 2005 to 2011     81

Table 48: Talison Lithium: Resource estimation for the Greenbushes deposit, December 2012 83

Table 49: Talison Lithium: Lithium mineral reserve estimation for the Greenbushes deposit,  December 2012    83

Table 50: Talison Lithium: Li, K and Na content of brines, Salares 7 project saline lakes 1998, (ppm)    84

Table 51: Talison Lithium: Li, K and Na content of brines, Salares 7 project saline lakes 2009, (ppm)    84

Table 52: Talison Lithium: Production and sales of lithium mineral concentrates and ores, 2005 to 2011     85

Table 53: Talison Lithium: Standard lithium mineral concentrate product specifications    87

Table 54: Galaxy Resources: Mount Cattlin mineral resource estimate, February 2011 89

Table 55: Galaxy Resources: Mount Cattlin mineral reserve estimate, December 2011 89

Table 56: Galaxy Resources: James Bay mineral resource estimate, November 2010 89

Table 57: Galaxy Resources: Mt. Cattlin mine and plant production, Q3 2010 – Q4 2011    90

Table 58: Reed Resources : Mt Marion resource estimation, July 2011 91

Table 59: Altura: Mineral resource estimation for the Pilgangoora lithium project, October 2012 92

Table 60: Belgium: Trade is lithium carbonate, 2005 to 2012     95

Table 61: Belgium: Trade in lithium hydroxide and oxide, 2005 to 2012     96

Table 62: Salars and Lagunas in Bolivia identified by Gerencia Nacional de Recursos Evaporíticos    97

Table 63: Results of sampling campaign by Université de Liegé and Universidad Tecnica de Oruro at the Salar de Coipasa, 2002    99

Table 64: Assay data for brines intercepted during drilling at the Pastos Grandes Salar, August 2011 100

Table 65: Brazil: Lithium resource estimation by mineral type, 2009    101

Table 66: Brazil: Trade in lithium chemicals and concentrates, 2004 to 2011     102

Table 67: CBL: Production of lithium concentrates and lithium salts, 2005 to 2011    102

Table 68: Arqueana: Production of lithium concentrates, 2008 to 2011    103

Table 69: Canada: Resources estimations for Canadian lithium projects    106

Table 70: Canada: Imports and exports of lithium compounds 2005 to 2012     108

Table 71: TANCO: Spodumene concentrate production 2005 to 2011     109

Table 72: Canada Lithium: Resource estimation for the Quebec Lithium project, December 2011 109

Table 73: Canada Lithium: Reserve estimation for the Quebec Lithium project, December 2011 110

Table 74: Canada Lithium: Estimated capital expenditure for Quebec Lithium project (inc.LiOH and Na2SO4 plant costs), October 2012 111

Table 75 :Canada Lithium: Estimated operating expenditure for Quebec Lithium project, October 2012 111

Table 76: Nemaska Lithium: Resource estimation for the Whabouchi project, June 2011 113

Table 77: Nemaska Lithium: Reserve estimation for the Whabouchi project, October 2012 113

Table 78: Avalon Rare Metals: Separation Rapids NI 43-101 resource and reserve estimation, 1999    116

Table 79: Perilya Ltd: Mineral resource estimation for Moblan deposit, May 2011 117

Table 80: Rock Tech Lithium: Structure of the Georgia Lake project, November 2011 118

Table 81: Rock Tech Lithium: Updated mineral resource estimation for Georgia Lake project, July 2012 119

Table 82: Glen Eagle: Resource estimation for Authier lithium property, January 2012 121

Table 83: Canada: Lithium exploration projects in Canada with uncompleted scoping studies or PFS in October 2012 122

Table 84: Chile: Lithium carbonate, chloride and hydroxide production, 2004 to 2011     128

Table 85: Chile: Special operating licence bidders for the September 2012 auction    129

Table 86: SQM: Majority shareholders of SQM as of December 31st 2011    130

Table 87: SQM: Reserves within brines at the Salar de Atacama project    131

Table 88: SQM: Production, revenue and value per tonne of lithium compounds, 2003 to 2012    132

Table 89: SQM: Specifications for lithium carbonate     133

Table 90: SQM: Specifications for lithium hydroxide     134

Table 91: RWL: Gross tonnage, value and unit value of lithium carbonate exports, 2006 to 2012    137

Table 92: RWL: Gross tonnage, value and unit value of lithium chloride exports, 2006 to 2012    138

Table 93: Li3 Energy: Resource estimation for the Maricunga property, April 2012 140

Table 94: Chile: Exports of lithium carbonate by destination, 2004 to 2011    144

Table 95: Chile: Lithium carbonate export volume, value and unit price by company, 2005 to 2011    144

Table 96: Chile: Lithium chloride exports by destination, 2004 to 2012    145

Table 97: Chile: Lithium hydroxide exports by destination, 2004 to 2012    146

Table 98: China : Estimated resources and reserves of both lithium mineral and brine operations and projects    148

Table 99: China: Production of lithium, 2003 to 2012    149

Table 100: China: Producers of lithium minerals, 2011 to 2012    151

Table 101: China: Production and capacity of Chinese lithium brine operations, 2011    152

Table 102: China: Mineral conversion plant production and production capacity, 2012    154

Table 103: China: Producers of battery grade lithium metal, 2012    154

Table 104: China: Imports and exports of lithium carbonate, 2005 to 2012     155

Table 105: China: Imports and exports of lithium chloride, 2005 to 2012     156

Table 106: China: Imports and exports of lithium hydroxide, 2005 to 2012     157

Table 107: China: Imports and exports of lithium oxide, 2005 to 2012     157

Table 108: Tibet Lithium New Technology Development: Lithium production, 2010 to 2012    158

Table 109: Qinghai CITIC: Lithium carbonate production, 2008 to 2012     160

Table 110:  Dangxiongcuo reserve estimation from 2006 qualifying report    163

Table 111: Jiangxi Western Resources: Lithium Production, 2010    167

Table 112: Sichuan Tianqi: Production and sales of lithium products, 2010 to 2011     169

Table 113: Galaxy Resources: Battery grade lithium carbonate chemical specifications    172

Table 114: KeliberOy: Claims, reservation and mining concessions for lithium projects held by Keliber in Finland, 2012    181

Table 115: France: Imports and exports of lithium carbonate, 2005 to 2012     183

Table 116: France: Imports and exports of lithium hydroxide and oxide, 2005 to 2012     184

Table 117: Germany: Imports and exports of lithium carbonate, 2005 to 2012     184

Table 118: India: Trade in lithium hydroxide and oxides, 2005 to 2012     187

Table 119: India: Trade in lithium carbonate, 2005 to 2012     187

Table 120: India: Producers of lithium chemicals    188

Table 121: Japan: Trade in lithium carbonate, 2005 to 2012     190

Table 122: Japan: Trade in lithium hydroxide and oxide, 2005 to 2012     191

Table 123: Mexico: LitioMex S.A. concessions and resource estimations    194

Table 124: Namibia: Production of lithium minerals, 1990 to 1998     197

Table 125: Netherlands: Trade in lithium carbonate, 2005 to 2012     198

Table 126: Netherlands: Trade in lithium hydroxide and oxide, 2005 to 2012     199

Table 127: SociedadMineira de Pegmatites: Production of Lithium, 2004 to 2012     200

Table 128: Russia: Deposits of lithium    201

Table 129: Russia: Imports of lithium carbonate, 2002 to 2012     204

Table 130: Russia: Exports of lithium hydroxide, 2002 to 2012     204

Table 131: Russia: Imports of lithium hydroxide, 2002 to 2012     205

Table 132: South Korea: Trade in lithium carbonate, 2005 to 2012     207

Table 133: South Korea: Trade in lithium hydroxide, 2005 to 2012     207

Table 134: Spain: Imports of lithium compounds, 2005 to 2012     208

Table 135: Minera Del Duero: Production of lepidolite in Spain, 2003 to 2011     208

Table 136: Inferred mineral resource estimation for the Doade-Presquerias project, October 2011 209

Table 137: Taiwan: Imports of lithium carbonate, 2005 to 2012     210

Table 138: UK: Imports of lithium carbonate and lithium hydroxides and oxides 2005 to 2012     211

Table 139: USA: Imports and exports of lithium carbonate 2005 to 2012     213

Table 140: USA: Imports and exports of lithium oxide and hydroxide 2005 to 2012     214

Table 141: FMC: Product range    218

Table 142: WLC: Resource estimation for the Kings Valley project, January 2012 219

Table 143: WLC: Reserve estimation for the Kings Valley project, December 2011 220

Table 144: WLC: Estimated operating and capital costs for ‘Case 1′ and ‘Case 2′ scenarios at the Kings Valley project.    221

Table 145: USA: Lithium exploration projects yet to reach scoping study or PFS stage in development    224

Table 146: Zimbabwe: South African imports of mineral substances from Zimbabwe, 2005 to 2012     227

Table 147: Bikita Minerals: Mine production and lithium content 2003 to 2011    228

Table 148: World: Total exports of lithium carbonate, 2005 to 2012     230

Table 149: World: Total imports of lithium carbonate, 2005 to 2012     232

Table 150: World: Total exports of lithium hydroxide and oxide, 2005 to 2012     234

Table 151: World: Total imports of lithium hydroxide and oxide, 2005 to 2012     236

Table 152: World: Major importers and exporters of lithium chloride, 2005 to 2012     237

Table 153: World: Exports of lithium minerals by major lithium mineral producing nations (excl. China), 2005 to 2012     238

Table 154: Chile: Exports of lithium chloride brine1 by SQM to China, 2005 to 2012     238

Table 155: World: Consumption of lithium by end-use, 2002, 2007 and 2012    240

Table 156: World: Estimated consumption of lithium by country/region, 2002, 2007 and 2012     244

Table 157: World: Consumption of lithium by end-use, by product, 2012    246

Table 158: World: Forecast consumption of lithium by end-use, 2012 to 2017     248

Table 159: Japan: Producers of lithium-ion battery cathode materials, 2012    265

Table 160: South Korea: Producers of lithium-ion battery cathode materials, 2012    265

Table 161: China: Producers of lithium-ion battery cathode materials, 2012    266

Table 162: World: Producers of lithium salts for electrolytes, 2012    267

Table 163: World: Lithium battery consumption in 3C products, 2012    269

Table 164: World: Lithium battery consumption in power devices and motive power, 2012    271

Table 165: World: Lithium battery consumption in heavy duty applications, 2012    272

Table 166: World: Lithium battery consumption in transport applications, 2012    274

Table 167: World: Lithium consumption in rechargeable lithium batteries end-use, 2012    275

Table 168: World: Lithium consumption in NiMH and NiCd batteries, 2012    275

Table 169: World: Consumption of lithium in rechargeable batteries by type, 2007 to 2012     277

Table 170: Japan: Consumption of lithium in rechargeable batteries, 2007 to 2012     277

Table 171: World: Consumption of lithium in rechargeable batteries by country, 2007 to 2012     278

Table 172: World: Rechargeable lithium battery demand by market, 2012 and 2017    278

Table 173: World: Comparison of EV production estimates in 2017 by industry consultant    280

Table 174: World: Forecast rechargeable battery consumption in EVs, 2017    281

Table 175: World: Lithium consumption in rechargeable lithium batteries by end-use, 2017    281

Table 176: World: Forecast demand for lithium in rechargeable lithium batteries, 2012 to 2017     282

Table 177: World: Forecast demand for lithium in rechargeable batteries by battery type, 2012 to 2017     282

Table 178: World: Forecast demand for lithium in rechargeable batteries by product type, 2007 to 2012     283

Table 179: Typical whiteware body compositions     285

Table 180: World: Production of ceramic tiles by leading country, 2007 to 2012     287

Table 181: World: Consumption of ceramic tiles by leading countries, 2007 to 2011     289

Table 182: World: Leading ceramic tile manufacturing companies, 2010    290

Table 183: World: Leading sanitaryware manufacturing companies, 2010    292

Table 184: World: Consumption of lithium in ceramics, 2012    300

Table 185: World: Consumption of lithium in ceramics, 2007 to 2012     300

Table 186: World: Forecast demand for lithium in ceramics, 2012 to 2017     301

Table 187: Glass-ceramic matrices    302

Table 188: Compositions of commercial glass-ceramics    303

Table 189: Japan: Consumption of lithium carbonate in glass-ceramics, 2007 to 2012     306

Table 190: World: Consumption of lithium in glass-ceramics by end-use and product type, 2012     307

Table 191: World: Consumption of lithium in glass-ceramics, 2007 to 2012     307

Table 192: World: Forecast demand for lithium in glass-ceramics, 2012 to 2017     308

Table 193: Properties of commercial greases    311

Table 194: World: Producers of lubricating grease    315

Table 195: World: Forecast demand for lithium in greases, 2012 to 2017    322

Table 196: Typical batch compositions for glass by type     323

Table 197: Main sources of lithium used in glass    324

Table 198: EU: Production of glass by type, 1998 to 2012     328

Table 199: USA: Production of container glass, 1999 to 2008    328

Table 200: Typical chemical composition of types of textile-grade fibreglass     329

Table 201: World: Estimated consumption of lithium in glass, 2012     331

Table 202: World: Consumption of lithium in glass, 2007 to 2012     331

Table 203: World: Forecast demand for lithium in glass, 2012 to 2017     332

Table 204: World: Consumption of lithium in continuous casting mould powders, 2007 to 2012     336

Table 205: Japan: Consumption of lithium in fluxes, 2007 to 2012     336

Table 206: World: Forecast demand for lithium in casting powders, 2012 to 2017     337

Table 207: Microstructure of different types of polybutadienes    339

Table 208: World: Producers of SSBR, BR and SBC, 2012    343

Table 209: World: Planned new/expanded SBR, BR and SBC plants    344

Table 210: World: Forecast demand for lithium in synthetic rubber and thermoplastics, 2011 to 2017    349

Table 211: World: Capacity for lithium bromide production, end-2012     355

Table 212: Japan: Consumption of lithium bromide, 2007 to 2012    356

Table 213: World: Forecast demand for lithium in air treatment, 2012 to 2017    361

Table 214: Characteristics of primary lithium batteries    363

Table 215: Japan: Production of primary batteries by type, 1998 to 2012     367

Table 216: World: Trade in lithium primary batteries, 2007 to 2011     369

Table 217: Primary lithium batteries and their material compositions    371

Table 218: Specifications for battery-grade lithium metal     371

Table 219: World: Producers of battery-grade lithium metal, end-2012    372

Table 220: Japan: Consumption of lithium in primary lithium batteries, 2007 to 2012    375

Table 221: Japan: Unit consumption of lithium in primary batteries, 2007 to 2012    375

Table 222: World: Imports of battery-grade lithium metal, 2007 to 2012    376

Table 223: World: Forecast demand for lithium in primary batteries, 2012 to 2017    377

Table 224: Effects of additives and temperatures on properties of molten cryolite    379

Table 225: World: Aluminium smelters using Söderberg technology, end-2012    381

Table 226: World: Forecast demand for lithium in aluminium smelting, 2012 to 2017     384

Table 227: World: Consumption of lithium in other end-uses, 2007, 2012 and 2017     385

Table 228: Examples of uses for lithium in organic synthesis    387

Table 229: Physical properties of Al-Li alloys    392

Table 230: Chemical composition of Al-Li alloys     393

Table 231: Use of Al-Li alloys in selected aircraft    397

Table 232: World: Forecast demand for lithium in aluminium-lithium alloys, 2012 to 2017    399

Table 233: Properties of lithium niobate and lithium tantalite    401

Table 234: Applications for SAW components    401

Table 235: Applications for speciality inorganic lithium compounds    406

Table 236: Prices of lithium minerals, 2000-2013     410

Table 237: Comparison of prices for lithium minerals and carbonate, 2004 to 2012    411

Table 238: Comparison of prices for chemical-grade spodumene concentrate and lithium carbonate, 2004 to 2012    412

Table 239: Comparison of technical- and battery- grade lithium carbonate prices, 2004 to 2012     416

Table 240: Average values of exports/imports of lithium oxides and hydroxides by leading exporting/importing country, 2004 to 2012     417

Table 241: Average values of exports of lithium chloride by leading producing country, 2004 to 2012    420

Table 242: Average values of exports of lithium metal by leading producing country, 2004 to 2012    421

Table 243: World: Forecast nominal and real prices for technical-grade lithium carbonate, 2012 to 2017     423

Table 244: World: Forecast nominal prices for technical-grade lithium carbonate and chemical-grade lithium minerals, 2012 to 2017     425

Table 245: World: Forecast nominal prices for technical-grade lithium carbonate and technical-grade lithium hydroxide, 2012 to 2017     426

List of Figures

Figure 1: Lithium product flow chart and main end-uses, 2012     1

Figure 2: Consumption of lithium by end-use, 2000 to 2012     2

Figure 3: Production of lithium by country, 2000 to 2012     4

Figure 4: Price history of lithium carbonate, 1990 to 2012    6

Figure 5: World: Forecast real prices for technical-grade lithium carbonate, 2012 to 2017     9

Figure 6: Overview of lithium production    16

Figure 7: Extraction and processing of brines from the Salar de Atacama, Chile and Silver Peak, Nevada by Rockwood Lithium    18

Figure 8: Flow sheet showing the processing of brines at Salar de Carmen by SQM    19

Figure 9: Simplified flow sheet of the Li SX™ method patented by Bateman Lithium Projects    21

Figure 10: Simplified mineral concentrate production flow sheet for a typical hard rock lithium operation    22

Figure 11: Simplified flow sheet for lithium carbonate production from spodumene mineral concentrate using the acid-roast method    24

Figure 12: Simplified flow sheet for lithium hydroxide and lithium hydroxide monohydrate production from spodumene mineral concentrate using the lime-roast method    25

Figure 13: Simplified flow sheet for lithium carbonate production from hectorite clay developed by Western Lithium    27

Figure 14: Mining and milling costs for hard rock lithium mineral operations/projects    31

Figure 15: Lithium carbonate cash operating costs, 2012    32

Figure 16:  Potential new producers production costs    33

Figure 17: World: Production of lithium by country, 2000 to 2012     34

Figure 18: Production of lithium from mineral and brine sources, 2005 to 2012     37

Figure 19: Production of lithium minerals by company, 2012     38

Figure 20: Production of lithium from brines by country, 2005 to 2012     40

Figure 21: Planned production capacity and consumption for lithium, 2012 to 2017     45

Figure 22: Forecast production and consumption of lithium, 2012 to 2017     54

Figure 23: Pilot plant flow sheet developed for Lithium Americas at SGS Mineral Services    62

Figure 24: Brazil: Production of Lithium products 2005 to 2010     101

Figure 25: SQM: Lithium sales by destination 2011, 2009, 2007 and 2005     135

Figure 26: SQM: Destination of lithium carbonate exports, 2006 to 2011     136

Figure 27: China: Location of mineral conversion and lithium chemical/metal plants in China, 2012    153

Figure 28: Japan: Imports of lithium carbonate, hydroxide & oxide and combined LCE, 2005 to 2012     191

Figure 29: World: Leading exporters of lithium carbonate, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012    231

Figure 30: World: Leading importers of lithium carbonate, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012    233

Figure 31: World: Leading exporters of lithium hydroxide and oxides, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012    235

Figure 32: World: Growth in consumption of lithium, 2000 to 2012    239

Figure 33: World: Consumption of lithium by end-use, 2012    240

Figure 34: World: Consumption of lithium by end-use, 2000 to 2012     241

Figure 35: World: Consumption of lithium by end-use, 2000 to 2012     241

Figure 36: World: Estimated consumption of lithium by country/region, 2002, 2007 and 2012     244

Figure 37: World: Consumption of lithium by product, 2012     245

Figure 38: World: Consumption of lithium by type, 2000 to 2012     247

Figure 39: World: Historical and forecast consumption of lithium by end-use, 2007 to 2017     248

Figure 40: World: Forecast consumption of lithium by form, 2007, 2012 and 2017     252

Figure 41: Specific energy and energy density of rechargeable batteries    253

Figure 42: Lithium-ion battery schematic    254

Figure 43: Lithium metal polymer battery schematic    256

Figure 44: Lithium-sulphur cell schematic    257

Figure 45: Lithium-air cell schematic    258

Figure 46: World: Production of rechargeable batteries1, 1995 to 2012     259

Figure 47: World: Production of rechargeable batteries1, 1995 to 2012     260

Figure 48: World: Rechargeable lithium battery production by country, 2000 to 2012     260

Figure 49: Lithium-ion battery materials value chain    263

Figure 50: World: Production of lithium cathode materials by type, 2000 to 2012    264

Figure 51: World: Market for rechargeable lithium batteries by end-use, 2002, 2007 and 2012     268

Figure 52: World: Market for rechargeable lithium batteries by end-use, 2012     269

Figure 53: World: Production of rechargeable batteries and consumption of lithium, 2000 to 2012    276

Figure 54: World: Market for rechargeable lithium batteries by end-use, 2002 to 2017     279

Figure 55: World: Ceramic tile production by region, 2007 and 2012     288

Figure 56: World: Sanitaryware production by region/country, 2010    291

Figure 57: World: Production of tableware by country/region, 2008    293

Figure 58: USA: Shipments of cookware, bakeware and kitchenware, 2001 to 2010    295

Figure 59: World: Shipments of white goods by region, 2000 to 2020    296

Figure 60: World: Year-on-year growth in construction spending and GDP, 2000 to 2017    298

Figure 61: World: Production of lubricating grease by additive type, 2011     312

Figure 62: World: Production of lubricating grease by type, 2000 to 2012    313

Figure 63: World: Production of lithium grease by region/country and by type,  2000 and 2011     314

Figure 64: World: Output of automobiles by region, 2000 to 2012    318

Figure 65: World: Deliveries of commercial aircraft, 2000 to 2012    318

Figure 66: World: Shipbuilding deliveries, 2000 to 2012    319

Figure 67: World: Relative industrial and transport output and lithium grease production, 2002 to 2011    320

Figure 68: World: Production of grease and consumption of lithium, 2000 to 2012    321

Figure 69: World: Estimated production of glass by type, 2012    326

Figure 70: World: Production of container glass by region/country, 2012    326

Figure 71: World: Consumption of glass packaging by region, 2011    327

Figure 72: World: Production of continuously cast steel by region, 1998 to 2012     335

Figure 73: World: Capacity for synthetic rubber production by country/region, 2012    340

Figure 74: World: Capacity for BR, ESBR and SSBR rubber by country/region, end-2011    341

Figure 75: World: SBC capacity by region/country, end-2010    341

Figure 76: World: Production of synthetic rubber by region, 1996 to 2011     342

Figure 77: World: Consumption of synthetic rubber by type, 2012    345

Figure 78: World: consumption of BR by end-use, 2010    346

Figure 79: World: Consumption of SBC by region/country, 2010    347

Figure 80: Consumption of SBC by end-use, 2007    347

Figure 81: World: Production of absorption chillers, 2003 to 2012    352

Figure 82: World: Consumption of lithium bromide in air treatment, 2001 to 2012    356

Figure 83: Specific energy and energy density of primary batteries    362

Figure 84: Primary and secondary battery gravimetric energy density    365

Figure 85: World: Production of primary lithium batteries by country, 1998 to 2012     366

Figure 86: Primary lithium battery schematics    370

Figure 87: World: Demand for lithium metal in primary batteries, 2000 to 2012    376

Figure 88: World: Aluminium output by type and lithium consumption, 2000 to 2012    383

Figure 89: World: Consumption of alkyd-based paints and coatings, 2010    390

Figure 90: Development of Al-Li alloys    392

Figure 91: World: Deliveries of commercial aircraft and lithium consumption, 2007 to 2019    399

Figure 92: Price history of lithium carbonate, 1990 to 2012    408

Figure 93: Compound annual prices of lithium minerals, 2000 to 2013     411

Figure 94: Prices for technical-grade lithium carbonate, 1999 to 2012     414

Figure 95: Prices for battery-grade lithium carbonate, 1999 to 2012     415

Figure 96: Comparison of lithium hydroxide and lithium carbonate prices, 2000 to 2012     418

Figure 97: Japan: Quarterly average import value of lithium hydroxide from the USA, 2008 to 2012     419

Figure 98: World: Forecast nominal prices for technical-grade lithium carbonate, 2012 to 2017     423

Figure 99: World: Forecast real prices for technical-grade lithium carbonate, 2012 to 2017     424

For further information on this report, please contact Robert Baylis (rbaylis@roskill.co.uk).

SOURCE Roskill Information Services

 

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2013 Pick n Pay Knysna Oyster Festival Programme full of New Highlights

Posted on 18 May 2013 by Africa Business

The programme for the 2013 Pick n Pay Knysna Oyster Festival is growing, with new and exciting events joining the stable of old favourites. “Last year’s programme sported more than 100 events,” said Festival Manager Nicci Rousseau-Schmidt. “And it is already clear that we’ll top that number this year.”

The Pick n Pay Women’s Walk will take place on Sunday 7 July. The Women’s Walk is a popular event that takes place across South Africa. Bronwen Rohland Marketing Director Pick n Pay said, “This 5km event raises funds for PinkDrive, an organisation that provides free breast cancer screening and health education for women who cannot afford it.”

The Young Oyster Festival is gaining in popularity each year, providing an environment for kids to have a blast. Aside from the regular events such as cooking lessons, arts and crafts, movie screenings, sport clinics, and exciting competitions, this year will see a dedicated Kids Zone complete with popcorn, candy floss and all things necessary for exciting and entertaining kids.

“Older kids will enjoy an all-new fun fair as well as obstacle courses and exciting events and competitions at The Yard, our local skate park,” Rousseau-Schmidt said. “This age group and their parents will also enjoy an all new 10-day local food and craft market at the main venue on Waterfront Drive and details of how to enter the Miss Knysna Oyster Festival will be available soon.”

“Of course we wouldn’t have a festival if it weren’t for our oysters. This year’s Pick n Pay Flavours of Knysna will truly showcase Knysna’s restaurants as they once again prepare oysters according to their own, unique recipes, with other delectable treats prepared by Pick n Pay also available on the evening.

“The oyster shucking and oyster eating competitions are always very entertaining and well attended, and this year we will combine these two fun events to both take place at the main venue on Waterfront Drive,” Rousseau-Schmidt said.

The festival has a longstanding relationship with the South African Navy, especially the local Sea Cadet unit from the Training Ship Knysna. “The Admiral’s Ball is a firm favourite on the festival’s calendar with music provided by the incredibly talented SA Navy Dance Band. Presented in co-operation with the Knysna Featherbed Company, the 2013 ball promises to be an event not to be missed,” said Rousseau-Schmidt “We are hoping to welcome two naval ships through the Knysna Heads this year – weather permitting,” she said. “The Navy also presents other fantastic events on the festival calendar, including the Right of Entry Parade which incorporates precision drilling and music from the marching band, displays by the Knysna Sea Cadets and the ever popular concert by the SA Navy Band which unofficially closes the festival.”

“This year the Knysna Forest Marathon and Half Marathon have already sold out, and we anticipate that Knysna will be buzzing with excitement,” said Rohland, “the festival is a great opportunity for us to meet our customers and be part of an event that showcases the best the region has to offer.”

“We are looking forward to old favourites such the Pick n Pay Weekend Argus Rotary Knysna Cycle Tour and the Pick n Pay Cape Times Knysna Forest Marathon and Half Marathon, but we have many exciting developments on the programme to look forward to,” Rousseau-Schmidt concluded. “And what you’ve read about here is only a taste of what the 2013 Pick n Pay Knysna Oyster Festival has on offer. Knysna is truly the place to be during the school holidays. So come along – I can guarantee that you’ll have the best ten days of your winter.”

Keep an eye on www.pnpoysterfestival.co.za for regular updates to the programme, or contact Knysna Tourism on 044 382 5510 for more information.

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Canadian Solar’s Partner Romano Wins Eskom Rooftop Project in Johannesburg

Posted on 15 May 2013 by Africa Business

About Eskom

Eskom generates approximately 95% of the electricity used in South Africa and approximately 45% of the electricity used in Africa. Eskom generates, transmits and distributes electricity to industrial, mining, commercial, agricultural and residential customers and redistributors. Additional power stations and major power lines are being built to meet rising electricity demand in South Africa. Eskom will continue to focus on improving and strengthening its core business of electricity generation, transmission, trading and distribution.  For more information, please visit www.eskom.co.za.

About Romano Group

The Romano Group is a multi-skilled provider of a broad range of sustainable solutions, to clients who are typically large commercial, industrial or retail property owners and tenants spread throughout Africa. Romano’s value-added offer includes the design, manufacture and installation of high-quality Solar PV, ECO-Lighting, Modular Construction and Signage & Print solutions, all of which are delivered on-time at a competitive price. The company celebrated its 60th birthday in 2012 and employs 150 people. For more information, please visit www.romano.co.za.

About Canadian Solar Inc.

Founded in 2001 in Canada, Canadian Solar Inc. (NASDAQ: CSIQ) is one of the world’s largest and foremost solar power companies. As a leading vertically integrated provider of solar modules, specialized solar products and solar power plants with operations in North America, South America, Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Australia and Asia, Canadian Solar has delivered more than 4GW of premium quality solar modules to customers in over 50 countries. Canadian Solar is committed to improve the environment and dedicated to provide advanced solar energy products, solutions and services to enable sustainable development around the world. For more information, please visit www.canadiansolar.com

 

JOHANNESBURG, May 15, 2013 /PRNewswire-FirstCall/ — Canadian Solar Inc. (NASDAQ: CSIQ) (the “Company” or “Canadian Solar”), one of the world’s largest solar companies, today announced the successful expansion of its partner Romano Sustainable Solutions in Africa. Romano, a pioneer company in the South African photovoltaic (PV) industry, was recently awarded the engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contract for a 360 kW PV solar system installation. The roof top installation will be on the Johannesburg headquarters of Eskom, the largest producer of electricity in Africa.

As one of the most experienced solar PV systems integrators in Africa, Romano designs, manufactures and installs solar PV systems to commercial clients spread throughout Africa. Most of Romano’s solar PV systems are grid-tied systems. When connected to the client side of the on-site electrical sub-station, the electricity generated is used on the site by the client. When connected to the utility side the electricity generated is exported to the national or municipal electricity grid.

“We are very proud to be involved with this prestigious project for Eskom, which we understand was awarded on the basis of our technical capability and track record, as well as the cost effectiveness of our offer,” said Alexi Romano , CEO of Romano.

“The solar energy market in Africa continues to develop and has considerable potential for growth. We are positioned to benefit through our relationships with experienced partners like Romano. We look forward to supporting their growth in this important market, including the high profile Eskom project,” said Dr. Shawn Qu , Chairman and CEO of Canadian Solar.”

 

SOURCE Canadian Solar

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Sarama Resources Continues to Consolidate its Position at the South Houndé Project in Burkina Faso

Posted on 15 May 2013 by Africa Business

TSX-V Ticker: SWA
SWA.WT

VANCOUVER, May 15, 2013 /PRNewswire/ – Sarama Resources Limited (“Sarama” or the “Company“) is pleased to report that it has been granted three new exploration permits in Burkina Faso, including one adjacent to the Company’s flagship South Houndé Project, which brings the Company’s exploration landholding in this prospective region to 1,014km².

Highlights

  • Three new exploration permits totalling 240km² granted, expanding Sarama’s total exploration land package in Burkina Faso to 3,339km².
  • The grant of a 127km² exploration permit adjacent to Sarama’s Tankoro exploration property, provides Sarama a commanding presence in the geologically prospective Houndé Belt, with a total landholding of 1,014km².
  • The grant of the Youngou Est and Nianie exploration permits complements Sarama’s existing Youngou exploration property, which borders the Youga mine of Endeavour Mining Corp in the central south of Burkina Faso, bringing the Company’s total landholding in the project area to 363km².
  • Reconnaissance exploration programs to commence in second half of 2013.

Grant of Bini Exploration Permit

Sarama has been granted new exploration permits for the Bini, Youngou Est and Nianie properties by the Ministry of Mines and Energy, bringing the Company’s total exploration property interests in Burkina Faso to 3,339km² (refer Figure 1).

The 127km² Bini exploration property (“Bini“) further consolidates Sarama’s position in the highly prospective Houndé Belt, which hosts the 7.8Moz, 170koz per annum Mana gold mine of Semafo Inc and the 2.2Moz Houndé gold project of Endeavour Mining Corp.  Bini is located centrally within the belt and is adjacent to Sarama’s Tankoro exploration property where the Company has intersected significant gold mineralisation over a 1.9km strike length at the MM Prospect (refer Figure 2).

The property is underlain by a sequence of meta-sedimentary and volcanic rocks and is interpreted to contain north-north-east trending structures, which are thought to be one of the controls on the mineralisation encountered at the Company’s MM Prospect.  Sarama anticipates commencing first-pass reconnaissance exploration activities on the property in the second half of 2013.

The exploration permit gives Sarama the exclusive right to explore for gold and associated minerals during an initial term of 3 years.  Subject to certain statutory obligations being met, the permit is renewable for a further two 3-year terms, after which time, the permit will be eligible for conversion to an exploitation permit.

Figure 1:    Sarama’s Exploration Properties in Burkina Faso

Figure 2:    Sarama’s Exploration Properties in South-West Burkina Faso

Grant of Youngou Est and Nianie Exploration Permits

The Youngou Est and Nianie exploration properties, covering areas of 95km² and 18km² respectively, lie in the extreme south of central Burkina Faso (Figure 3).  Being proximal to Sarama’s existing Youngou exploration property, the permit grants bring Sarama’s landholding in the project area to 363km².

The properties are underlain by volcano-sedimentary and gneissic rocks with the prospective sequence arranged along a north-east striking trend bounded by granite.  The 90,000oz per annum Youga gold mine of  Endeavour Mining Corp is located immediately adjacent to Sarama’s property group and within the same lithological sequence, illustrating the prospectivity of the region.

Sarama anticipates commencing reconnaissance exploration activities on the recently granted properties in the second half of 2013.

The exploration permits give Sarama the exclusive right to explore for gold and associated minerals during an initial term of 3 years.  Subject to certain statutory obligations being met, the permit is renewable for a further two 3-year terms, after which time, the permit will be eligible for conversion to an exploitation permit.

Figure 3:    Sarama’s Exploration Properties in Central South Burkina Faso

Sarama’s President and CEO, Andrew Dinning commented:

“We are pleased to have been granted these new permits in two of our existing project areas.  Our position at the South Houndé Project continues to strengthen with the addition of the Bini property and we look forward to commencing our reconnaissance exploration programs in the upcoming exploration season.

Sarama is well funded with a cash balance of approximately US$11M at the end of March 2013 and is currently finalising regional exploration programs in the south of the MM Prospect which are expected to contribute to the maiden resource estimate planned for Q3 2013.”

For further information on the Company’s activities, please contact:

Andrew Dinning or Paul Schmiede
email:  info@saramaresources.com
telephone: +61 8 9363 7600

About Sarama Resources Ltd
Sarama Resources Ltd is a Canadian company with a focus on the exploration and development of gold deposits in West Africa.  The board of directors and management team, a majority of whom are founders of the Company, are seasoned resource industry professionals with extensive experience in the exploration and development of world-class gold projects in Africa.

The South Houndé Project in south-west Burkina Faso is the Company’s flagship property and is currently the focus of an aggressive exploration program to increase the size of its maiden discovery and to test gold-in-soil anomalies located in a 30km-long structural corridor.  Recent drilling programs at the South Houndé Project have intersected significant mineralisation in several prospect areas which the Company is actively following up.  The Company has built substantial early-stage exploration landholdings in prospective and underexplored areas of Burkina Faso (>3,300 km²), Liberia (>880 km²) and Mali (>560 km²) and is aggressively exploring across the property portfolio.

Caution Regarding Forward Looking Statements
Information in this news release that is not a statement of historical fact constitutes forward-looking information.  Such forward-looking information includes statements regarding the Company’s planned exploration programs.  Actual results, performance or achievements of the Company may vary from the results suggested by such forward-looking statements due to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors. Such factors include, among others, that the business of exploration for gold and other precious minerals involves a high degree of risk and is highly speculative in nature; few properties that are explored are ultimately developed into producing mines; geological factors; the actual results of current and future exploration; changes in project parameters as plans continue to be evaluated, as well as those factors disclosed in the Company’s publicly filed documents.

There can be no assurance that any mineralisation that is discovered will be proven to be economic, or that future required regulatory licensing or approvals will be obtained. However, the Company believes that the assumptions and expectations reflected in the forward-looking information are reasonable. Assumptions have been made regarding, among other things, the Company’s ability to carry on its exploration activities, the sufficiency of funding, the timely receipt of required approvals, the price of gold and other precious metals, that the Company will not be affected by adverse political events, the ability of the Company to operate in a safe, efficient and effective manner and the ability of the Company to obtain further financing as and when required and on reasonable terms. Readers should not place undue reliance on forward-looking information.

Sarama does not undertake to update any forward-looking information, except as required by applicable laws.

Qualified Person’s Statement

Scientific or technical information in this news release that relates to the Company’s exploration activities in Burkina Faso is based on information compiled or approved by Michel Mercier Michel Mercier is an employee of Sarama Resources Ltd and is a member in good standing of the Ordre des Géologues du Québec and has sufficient experience which is relevant to the commodity, style of mineralisation under consideration and activity which he is undertaking to qualify as a Qualified Person under National Instrument 43-101.  Michel Mercier consents to the inclusion in this report of the information, in the form and context in which it appears.

Neither TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release.

SOURCE Sarama Resources Limited

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African Development Fund: Governors support a successful ADF replenishment

Posted on 15 May 2013 by Africa Business

ABIDJAN, Côte d’Ivoire, May 15, 2013/African Press Organization (APO)/ We, the African Development Fund’s Governors, Planning and Finance Ministers from Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Senegal and Sierra Leone attended the ADF-13 Presentation Workshop on the Fund’s Priorities and Operational Strategies, in Abidjan, May 14, 2013.

During this important meeting, many issues were raised concerning the impact the ADF is having in our countries and its role in the transformation of our economies. The Bank (http://www.afdb.org) for instance, has delivered rapid budget supports to maintain and restore core basic services to the people in the region, at a time when some countries needed it most.

We noted that the ADF is indeed a relevant channel of development financing. The Bank Group also plays an important role as the convener and voice of Africa. The ADF strategic orientation and operational priorities are aligned with the Continent’s development agenda and countries’ needs. Successive institutional reforms have strengthened the Bank Group’s Delivery capacity, Responsiveness and Results-focus.

The Bank’s work in the field of infrastructure is very important, given Africa’s huge infrastructure potential. We appreciate the establishment and augmenting of the ADF Regional Operations envelope, which is critical in supporting the Bank’s ambitious regional integration agenda. For many African countries, regional solutions to the provision of public services, such as regional power grids and transportation networks, are more cost effective and provide better services and complement national programs.

We support the building of capacity in the fields of public procurement, internal and external audits, managing revenues from natural resources, and enhancing domestic resource mobilization as they are important for resource rich countries in the region. We, therefore, are appreciative of the Bank’s work and interventions in these areas.

However, we do believe that the Bank Group could do more to support economic diversification and job creation, for the Youth especially, by helping to improve the productivity of private enterprises and micro, small and medium-sized agribusinesses as well as supporting economic and structural reforms with the highest impact on improving the business environment.

Finally, we recognize that there are major challenges for the Bank and the Fund to mobilize resources at a time when many donor countries are facing some economic constraints. Nevertheless, we think that we need to keep the momentum and focus on the big picture, which is to help the Bank’s Regional Member Countries transform their economies, create jobs, and reduce poverty. We hope the ADF-13′s replenishment will meet our needs.

Signed in Abidjan: 14 may, 2013

Monsieur Albert TOIKEUSSE MABRI

Gouverneur du Groupe de la BAD et Ministre du Plan et du Développement de la République de Côte d’Ivoire.

Mr. Mohammed M. SHEIRF

Chief economist, Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Liberia


HON. Seth TERKPER

Governor for the AfDB Group and Minister of Finance and Economic Planning of the Republic of Ghana

Mr. Ngouda Fall Kane

Secrétaire général du Ministère de l’Économie et des Finances, Représentant le Gouverneur Amadou Kane, Ministre de l’Economie et des Finances du Sénégal


Monsieur Kerfalla YANSANE

Gouverneur du Groupe de la BAD et Ministre d’Etat chargé de l’Economie et des Finances de la République de Guinée

Mr. Foday MANSARAY

Temporary Governor for the AfDB Group and Minister of State, Ministry of Finance and Economic Development, Republic of Sierra Leone


Distributed by the African Press Organization on behalf of the African Development Bank (AfDB).

SOURCE

African Development Bank (AfDB)

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Global Trade Partners in the 21st Century

Posted on 15 May 2013 by Africa Business

WASHINGTON, May 15, 2013/African Press Organization (APO)/ — Remarks

Robert D. Hormats

Under Secretary for Economic Growth, Energy, and the Environment

World Economic Forum

Pretoria, South Africa

May 14, 2013

 

 

As Prepared

 

Thank you Lyal for the kind introduction.

I am delighted to be in South Africa again. I visited last fall with Secretary of State Hillary Clinton.

What was most striking then, and continues to be the case today, is the extent to which the image of Africa has changed. According to the IMF, growth in sub-Saharan Africa will surge to 6.1% next year, well ahead of the global average of 4%.

Africa is booming in nearly every sector, ranging from massive energy developments in Mozambique, Tanzania, Ghana, and other countries; to the growth of Rwanda and Kenya’s information and communications technology sectors; to South Africa’s thriving auto industry. And, though far from declaring victory, Africa is reaching a turning point in its hard-fought battles against poverty and corruption.

Today’s Africa looks nothing like what, in 2000, The Economist referred to as the “Hopeless Continent.” It is critical that we concentrate the world’s eyes on the new image of Africa, that of progress and promise. Perspectives are evolving—in 2011, The Economist referred to Africa as the “Rising Continent” and, last March, as the “Hopeful Continent.”

Trade is at the heart of Africa’s economic resurgence. So, in this context, I will speak first about America’s vision for global trade in the 21st century and then, focus on implications and, indeed, opportunities for Africa. America’s global trade agenda in the 21st century is shaped by a foundation laid, in large part, in the mid-20th century. After World War II, American and European policymakers worked together to build a set of international institutions that embodied democratic and free market principles.

The GATT—which led to the WTO—World Bank, IMF, and the OECD were designed to foster international economic cooperation. These institutions were vital to the economic prosperity of the United States, and to the success of America’s foreign policy and national security for the next three generations.

As we move into the 21st century, a new multi-polar global economy has surfaced. The emergence of a new group of economic powerhouses—Brazil, Russia, India, and China, of course, but also countries in Africa—has created momentum (if not necessity) for greater inclusiveness in the global trading system.

At the same time, these new players must assume responsibilities for the international economic system commensurate with the increasing benefits they derive from the global economy. In addition to the geography of international trade, the nature of trade and investment has evolved to include previously unimaginable issues such as e-commerce and sustainability.

So, part of our vision for trade in the 21st century is to build a system that is more inclusive, recognizes the new realities of economic interdependence, and matches increased participation in the global trading system with increased responsibility for the global trading system.

We are making progress with bringing new players into the global trading system as equal partners. Free Trade Agreements with Korea, Colombia, and Panama entered into force last year.

And, we are continuing negotiations on the Trans-Pacific Partnership—or TPP as it is more widely known. With Japan’s anticipated entry into the negotiations, TPP will grow to include 12 countries of different size, background, and levels of development. The agreement, when finalized, will encompass nearly 40% of global GDP and one-third of global trade.

In addition to TPP, we are embarking on a Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership with the European Union. TTIP—as it is being called—will strengthen economic ties between the United States and Europe, and enhance our ability to build stronger relationships with emerging economies in Asia, Africa, and other parts of the world.

TPP and TTIP are truly historic undertakings. Our objective is not only to strengthen economic ties with the Asia-Pacific and Europe, but also to pioneer approaches to trade and investment issues that have grown in importance in recent years.

These agreements will seek to break new ground by addressing a multitude of heretofore unaddressed non-tariff barriers, setting the stage for convergence on key standards and regulations, and establishing high quality norms and practices that can spread to other markets. TPP, for example, will raise standards on investment and electronic commerce, and afford protections for labor and the environment.

Our agenda also includes strengthening the multilateral trading system through the World Trade Organization. For example, the United States would like to see a multilateral Trade Facilitation Agreement, which would commit WTO Members to expedite the movement, release, and clearance of goods, and improve cooperation on customs matters. A Trade Facilitation Agreement would be a win-win for all parties—Africa especially.

Cross-border trade in Africa is hindered by what the World Bank calls “Thick Borders.” According to the latest Doing Business Report, it takes up to 35 days to clear exports and 44 days to clear imports in Africa. Clearing goods in OECD countries, in contrast, takes only 10 days on average and costs nearly half as much. Countries like Ghana and Rwanda have benefited tremendously from the introduction of trade facilitation tools and policies.

Ghana, for instance, introduced reforms in 2003 that decreased the cost and time of trading across borders by 60%, and increased customs revenue by 50%. A multilateral Trade Facilitation Agreement will create a glide path for increased trade with and within Africa.

Our views for 21st century global trade partnerships go beyond Europe and the Asia-Pacific, and efforts at the WTO. We are committed to supporting Africa’s integration into the global trading system. The cornerstone of our trade relationship with sub-Saharan Africa is the African Growth and Opportunity Act—known as AGOA. Of all of our trade preference programs, AGOA provides the most liberal trade access to the U.S. market.

Exports from Africa to the United States under the AGOA have grown to $34.9 billion in 2012. While oil and gas still represent a large portion of Africa’s exports, it is important to recognize that non-petroleum exports under AGOA have tripled to nearly $5 billion since 2001, when AGOA went into effect. And, compared to a decade ago, more than twice the number of eligible countries are exporting non-petroleum goods under AGOA.

South Africa, in particular, has made great strides in diversifying its exports to the United States. Thanks to AGOA, the United States is now South Africa’s main export market for passenger cars, representing more than 50% of exported value in 2012. Because AGOA is such an important mechanism for African countries to gain access to the U.S. market, the Administration is committed to working with Congress on an early, seamless renewal of AGOA. Our trade relationship with Africa goes beyond AGOA. For instance, AGOA represents only one-quarter of South African exports to the United States. The composition of South Africa’s exports to the United States, moreover, reflects complex interdependencies and industrial goods.

And, our trade relationship with Africa is not just about one-way trade. There is an immense opportunity for U.S. companies to do business on the continent.

We recently launched the “Doing Business in Africa Campaign” to help American businesses identify and seize upon trade and investment opportunities in Africa. The campaign was announced in Johannesburg, in part, because South Africa can play a prominent role in directing U.S. investment into other parts of the continent.

Although progress has been made on diversifying exports beyond energy, there is much more to be done. African ingenuity and entrepreneurship must be unleashed to drive innovation and growth throughout the continent. This requires closer integration to share ideas, transfer knowledge, and partner on solutions. Through AGOA and the “Doing Business in Africa Campaign”, we are promoting a business climate in Africa that enables and encourages trade and investment. However, realizing these goals is goes beyond trade preferences and commercial linkages.

Africa is also featured in America’s vision for global trade in the 21st century.

For example, we recently launched the U.S.-East African Community Trade and Investment Partnership—the first of its kind—to expand two-way trade and investment. The Partnership is designed to build confidence among the private sector by building a more open and predictable business climate in East Africa. We are considering a variety of mechanisms to accomplish this, including a regional investment treaty and trade facilitation agreement. The Partnership highlights our desire to help Africa integrate and compete in today’s global economy.

I will conclude with one final point. I began by saying that trade is at the heart of Africa’s economic resurgence. Trade is also at the heart of America’s economic recovery. We have a common interest and a common goal.

When it comes to enhanced trade, what is good for Africa is good for America. And what is good for America is good for Africa.

Thank you.


SOURCE

US Department of State

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SA ECONOMIC GROWTH HIT BY MINING SECTOR

Posted on 14 May 2013 by Africa Business

Will the Chinese purchase divested mining interests?

South Africa’s economic growth is lagging somewhat behind that of its peers in the developing world. IMF forecasts for 2013 indicate that emerging and developing economies will grow by 5,5% while SA’s GDP is expected to grow between 2,5% and 3%.

Global ranking

Country Name

GDP in Millions of US dollars (2011)

27

South Africa

408,237

39

Nigeria

243,986

60

Angola

104,332

88

Kenya

33,621

105

Zambia

19,206

One of the key reasons for slower growth is SA’s foreign trade structure and reliance on Europe. President Zuma used the opportunity at the World Economic Forum in Davos earlier this year to ensure foreign investors that South Africa is on the right track.

2012 will be remembered for the negative impact of labour unrest and resultant production stoppages in the mining sector. Mining reduced GDP by 0,5% in the first three quarters of the year. This excludes the biggest slump in the sector during the fourth quarter 2012.

Other significant features of the growth slowdown in 2012 were the slowdown in household consumption spending, poor growth in private fixed investment spending and a slump in real export growth.

South African’s inflation rate slowed to a five-month low in January 2013 after the statistics office adjusted the consumer price basket while food and fuel prices eased. In December, the inflation rate fell to 5,4% from 5,7% Statistics South Africa stated.

Government cut the price of fuel by 1,2% in January 2013, as a stronger rand in the previous month helped to curb import costs. Since then, the currency has plunged 4,8% against the dollar and fuel prices are on the rise, with prices increasing in March by a further 8%, adding to pressure on inflation.

South Africa’s strengths

· South Africa is the economic powerhouse of Africa, leading the continent in industrial output and mineral production, generating a large portion of the continent’s electricity.

· The economy of South Africa is the largest in Africa, accounting for 24% of the continent’s GDP in terms of PPP, and is ranked as an upper-middle income economy by the world bank.

· The country has abundant natural resources, well developed financial, legal and transport sectors, a stock exchange ranked amongst the top 20 in the world, as well as a modern infrastructure supporting efficient distribution of goods throughout the Southern African region.

South Africa’s weaknesses

· South Africa suffers from a relatively heavy regulation burden when compared to most developed countries.

· Increasing costs for corporates with rising wages.

· Poverty, inequalities sources of social risk mixed with high unemployment and shortage of qualified labour.

Mining

Output in the mining sector remained weak in December with total mining production down by 7,5% y-o-y after falling by a revised 3,8% (previously -4,5%) in November. On a monthly basis production rose by a seasonally adjusted 1,2% compared with 12,0% in November. Non-gold output was down by 5,0% y-o-y, while gold production slumped by 21,2% in December. For the fourth quarter, total mining production fell by a seasonally-adjusted and annualised 4,6% q-o-q as output of most minerals dropped.

For 2012 as a whole, mining volumes fell by 3,1% after contracting by 0,9% in 2011. Mineral sales were down by 15,6% y-o-y in November after falling 13,7% in October. On a monthly basis sales rose by a seasonally-adjusted 2,3% in November, but sales were down by a seasonally-adjusted 10,2% in the three months to November after declining by 6,8% in the same period to October. These figures indicate that the mining sector is still reeling from the devastating effects of widespread labour strikes in the third and early fourth quarters.

Prospects for the mining sector remain dim as the industry faces headwinds both on the global and domestic fronts. Globally, commodity prices are not likely to make significant gains as demand conditions remain relatively unfavourable. Locally, tough operating conditions persist. Rapidly rising production costs, mainly energy and labour costs, are likely to compel mining companies to scale back operations or even halt them in some cases.

This will have a negative impact on production, with any improvements coming mainly from a normalisation of output should strike activity ease. These numbers, together with other recent releases, suggest that GDP growth for the fourth quarter was around 2,0%, with overall growth of 2,5% for the year as a whole. Overall economic activity in the sector therefore remains generally sluggish while upside risks to inflation have increased due to the weaker rand.

Retail

Annual growth in retail sales slowed to 2,3% in December from 3,6% in the previous month. Over the month, sales rose by a seasonally-adjusted 1,0%, causing sales for the last quarter of 2012 to decline by 0,2% following 2,1% growth in the third quarter.

As a whole, 2012 retail sales rose by 4,3%, slightly down from 5,9% in 2011. Consumer spending is likely to moderate during 2013 as weak consumer confidence, heightened worries about job security and high debt, make consumers more cautious about spending on non-essential items. The overall economic outlook remains weak and fragile, while inflation may increase due to the weaker rand.

Manufacturing

Annual growth in manufacturing production slowed to 2,0% in December 2012 from 3,7% in the previous month, versus the consensus forecast of 2,9%. The increase in output was recorded in seven of the ten major categories. Significant contributions came from petroleum, chemical products, rubber and plastic products. Over the month, total production fell by 2,2% on a seasonally adjusted basis following a 2,6% rise in November.

On a quarterly basis, however, production improved by 1,6% in the final quarter of 2012 following two quarters of weaker growth. Both local and international economic conditions are expected to improve only moderately during 2013. A weak Eurozone will continue to hurt the large export-orientated industries.

The recent recovery in infrastructure spending by the public sector will probably support the industries producing capital goods and other inputs for local projects. But the growth rate will be contained by slower capital expenditure by the private sector in response to the bleaker economic environment both locally and internationally.

Therefore, while a moderate recovery in manufacturing production will continue in 2013, no impressive upward momentum is expected. Overall economic activity remains generally sluggish while upside risks to inflation have increased due to a weaker rand.

Infrastructure

A new economic plan, the National Development Plan (NDP), is likely to be adopted in 2013 promoting low taxation for businesses and imposing less stringent employment requirements. This a measure that the ANC is pursuing ahead of the 2014 national elections. The NDP will encourage partnerships between government and the private sector, creating opportunities in petrochemical industries, metal-working and refining, as well as development of power stations.

Construction companies are especially likely to benefit from government plans to invest $112-billion from 2013 in the expansion of infrastructure as part of the NDP. Some 18 strategic projects will be launched to expand transport, power and water, medical and educational infrastructure in some of the country’s least developed areas.

Energy companies will also benefit, following the lifting of a moratorium on licences for shale gas development. Meanwhile, there will be significant opportunities, especially for Chinese state-owned enterprises that have recently made high-profile visits to South Africa, to acquire divested assets in the platinum and gold mining sector as large mining houses withdraw from South Africa.

According to government reports, the South African government will have spent R860-billion on new infrastructure projects in South Africa between 2009 and March 2013. In the energy sector, Eskom had put in place 675 kilometers of electricity transmission lines in 2012, to connect fast-growing economic centers and also to bring power to rural areas. More than 200 000 new households were connected to the national electricity grid in 2012. Construction work is also taking place in five cities including Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, Rustenburg, Durban and Pretoria to integrate different modes of transport.

Business Climate

Due to South Africa’s well-developed and world-class business infrastructure, the country is ranked 35th out of 183 countries in the World Bank and International Finance Corporation’s Doing Business 2012 report, an annual survey that measures the time, cost and hassle for businesses to comply with legal and administrative requirements. South Africa was ranked above developed countries such as Spain (44) and Luxembourg (50), as well as major developing economies such as Mexico (53), China (91), Russia (120), India (132) and Brazil (126).

The report found South Africa ranked first for ease of obtaining credit. This was based on depth of information and a reliable legal system.

Foreign trade

SA’s trade deficit narrowed to R 2,7-billion in December from R7,9-billion in November on account of seasonal factors. The trade balance usually records a surplus in December due to a large decline in imports. Exports declined 9,8% over the month. The decrease was mainly driven by declines in the exports of base metals. Vehicles, aircraft and vessels (down R1,1-billion), machinery and electrical appliances (down R0,9-billion) and prepared foodstuffs, beverages and tobacco (down 0,8-billion). Imports dropped 15,8% m-o-m.

Declines in the imports of machinery and electrical appliances (down R3,3-billion), original equipment components; (R1,8-billion), products of the chemicals or allied industries (R1,5-billion) and base metals and articles thereof (R1,2-billion) were the main drivers of the drop.

The large trade deficit for 2012 is one of the major reasons for the deterioration in the 2012 current account deficit forecast to 6,2% of GDP from 3,3% in 2011. South Africa’s trade performance will remain weak in the coming months on the back of unfavourable global conditions and domestic supply disruptions. Weak global economic conditions will continue to influence exports and growth domestically.

Skills and education

The need to transform South Africa’s education system has become ever more urgent, especially given the service delivery issues that have plagued the system. While government continues to allocate a significant amount of its budget to education (approximately 20%), it has not been enough to transform the schooling system. Coface expects the government to continue to support this critical sector, but that an opportunistic private sector will take advantage of government inefficiencies.

South Africa’s education levels are quite low compared to other developed and developing nations. South Africa began restructuring its higher education system in 2003 to widen access to tertiary education and reset the priorities of the old apartheid-based system. Smaller universities and technikons (polytechnics) were incorporated into larger institutions to form comprehensive universities.

Debt

The total number of civil judgments recorded for debt in South Africa fell by 9,8% year on year in November 2012 to 35 268, according to data released by Statistics South Africa. The total number of civil judgments recorded for debt decreased by 15,2% in three months ended November 2012 compared with the three months ended November 2011.

The number of civil summonses issued for debt fell 23,9% year-on-year to 70 537. During November, the 35 268 civil judgments for debt amounted to R414,1-million, with the largest contributors being money lent, with R142,5-million. There was a 21,9% decrease in the total number of civil summonses issued for debt in the three months ended November last year compared with the same period in 2011. A 23,9% y-o-y decrease was recorded in November.

South Africa maintains respectable debt-to-GDP ratios, although these grew to 39% of GDP by end-2012, substantially higher than the 34% for emerging and developing economies as a whole. When Fitch downgraded SA earlier this year, it specifically mentioned concerns about SA’s rising debt-to-GDP ratio, given that the ratio is higher than the country’s peers.

South Africa is uniquely exposed to foreign investor sentiment through the deficit on the current account combined with liquid and deep fixed interest markets. SA’s widening deficit on the current account is a specific factor that concerns the rating agencies and is one of the metrics the agencies will use to assess SA’s sovereign risk in the near future. Further downgrades are the risk – potentially driven by foreign investor sentiment about political risks.

Political landscape

Persistent unemployment, inequality and the mixed results of BEE (Black Economic Empowerment) intended to favour access to economic power by the historically disadvantaged populations have led to disappointment and resentment.

Social unrest is increasing. Recent events weakened the ruling coalition which came under fire for its management of these events. Tensions could intensify in the run up to the 2014 presidential elections. South Africa has a well-developed legal system, but government inefficiency, a shortage of skilled labour, criminality and corruption are crippling the business environment. South Africa also has a high and growing youth unemployment, high levels of visible inequality and government corruption so we would keep an eye on the escalating service delivery protest trends.

Labour force

The unemployment rate fell to 24,9% in the fourth quarter of 2012 from 25,5% in the third quarter, mainly reflecting an increase in the number of discouraged work seekers. Over the quarter, a total of 68 000 jobs were lost while the number discouraged work seekers rose by 87 000. The formal non-agricultural sector lost 52 000 jobs over the quarter, while the informal sector, in contrast, employed 8 000 more people. The breakdown shows that the highest number of jobs were lost in the private households category (48 000), followed by the trade and transport sectors, which shed 41 000 and 18 000 jobs respectively.

The agricultural sector led employment creation over the quarter, adding 24 000 jobs. Both local and international economic conditions are expected to improve only moderately during 2013.

Weak confidence and high wage settlement will make firms more cautious to expand capacity and employ more people this year. Government is likely to be the main driver of employment as it rolls out its infrastructure and job creation plans. The unemployment rate will therefore remain high in the short term.

Although the reduction in the unemployment rate is good news, it mainly reflects the large number of discouraged work seekers. Overall economic activity remains generally sluggish while upside risks to inflation have increased due to a weaker rand. Coface believes that this will persuade the Monetary Policy Committee to keep policy neutral over an extended period, with interest rates remaining unchanged for most of 2013. A reversal in policy easing is likely only late in the year or even in 2014.


 


Issued by:                                                                              Sha-Izwe/CharlesSmithAssoc

ON BEHALF OF:                                                   Coface

FURTHER INFORMATION:                                  Charles Smith

Tel:          (011) 781-6190

Email: charles@csa.co.za

Web:       www.csa.co.za

Media Contact:

Michele FERREIRA /
SENIOR MANAGER: MARKETING AND COMMUNICATION
TEL. : +27 (11) 208 2551  F.: +27 (11) 208 2651   M.: +27 (83) 326 2268
michele_ferreira@cofaceza.com

 

BUILDING D, DRA MINERALS PARK, INYANGA CLOSE

SUNNINGHILL, JOHANNESBURG, SOUTH AFRICA
T. +27 (11) 208 2500 –
www.cofaceza.com

About Coface

The Coface Group, a worldwide leader in credit insurance, offers companies around the globe solutions to protect them against the risk of financial default of their clients, both on the domestic market and for export. In 2012, the Group posted a consolidated turnover of €1.6 billion. 4,400 staff in 66 countries provide a local service worldwide. Each quarter, Coface publishes its assessments of country risk for 158 countries, based on its unique knowledge of companies’ payment behaviour and on the expertise of its 350 underwriters located close to clients and their debtors. In France, Coface manages export public guarantees on behalf of the French state.

Coface is a subsidiary of Natixis. corporate, investment management and specialized financial services arm of Groupe BPCE.. In South Africa, Coface provides credit protection to clients. Coface South Africa is rated AA+ by Global Ratings.

www.cofaceza.com

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Mobile Technologies to Fast Track Financial Transactions for the Unbanked in Asia

Posted on 14 May 2013 by Africa Business

4th Annual Summit on Mobile Payments & Banking Greater Mekong/ Emerging Markets will be taking place in Phnom Penh, Cambodia from 12-13 June 2013.

Singapore, Singapore –(PR.com)– 1. Mobile technology is fast becoming the first choice for many consumers to access financial services especially among the economies of the unbanked population. At the 4th Annual Summit on Mobile Payments & Banking Greater Mekong/ Emerging Markets which will be taking place in Phnom Penh in Cambodia on 12 – 13 June 2013, key industry stakeholders from the financial institutions, mobile operators and solution providers will congregate to discuss the latest developments in mobile payments in the growing affluent economies of South East Asia, South Asia, East Asia, Central Asia, Eurasia, Middle East and Oceania.

2. This year summit’s will have a special focus on emerging economies of Fiji, Indonesia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos and Myanmar. Key issues include an assessment of the growing opportunities in the region, success stories on how to design, establish and operationalize mobile payments solutions, evaluation of the various technology and challenges, discussion on IT strategies to drive revenue opportunities, cost efficiencies and the future transformation of the customer retail banking experience.

3. Companies expected to speak at the summit include: National Bank of Cambodia, Department of Finance, (Philippines), VeriFone, Rural Bankers Association of the Philippines, Quezon Capital Rural Bank, Hattha Kaksekar, ACLEDA Bank Plc, Viettel Telecom, Globe Telecom Inc / G-Xchange Inc, BICS Asia, Maybank, Chunghwa Telecom, Western Union, Standard Chartered Bank, Alpha Payments Cloud, Bank Mandiri, Etisalat, ControlCase, EPIC Lanka Group, Ayeryarwady Bank, Vodafone, FINTEL Fiji, Bank of the Lao PDR, Bank of Ayudhya and more.

4. EPIC Lanka Group, a world class software solutions provider in its core technology areas of Secure Electronic Payments and Information Systems Security is the summit’s Associate Sponsor.

5. Exhibitors at the summit include SecureMetric, the fastest growing digital security technology company and ControlCase, a United States based company with headquarters in McLean, Virginia and PCI center of excellence in Mumbai, India.

6. The CEO of the conference organizing company, Magenta Global Pte Ltd, Singapore, Ms Maggie Tan, said: “A new report from Juniper Research finds that over 1 billion phone users will have made use of their mobile devices for banking purposes by the end of 2017, compared to just over 590 million this year. The emerging economies in this region are likely to see a huge increase in mobile subscribers who are mostly unbanked. Banks must implement at least one mobile banking offering either via messaging, mobile browser or an- app based service. Some banks are already doing so with larger banks deploying two or more of these technologies. This Summit has been specially convened to take the industry forward.” She invites all telco operators, financial institutions and technology service providers to join this Summit and contribute to the greater development of the banking and financial services sector in this region.

7. The event will be held at the NagaWorld Hotel.

Notes for Editor

About Magenta Global – Organizer

Magenta Global Pte Ltd is a premier independent business media company that provides pragmatic and relevant information to government & business executives and professionals worldwide. The organization provides the opportunity to share thought-provoking insights, exchange ideas on the latest industry trends and technological developments with thought leaders and business peers. With a strong focus in emerging economies especially in Africa, Middle East & Central Asia, Magenta Global works in partnership with both the public and private sectors.

About EPIC Lanka Group – Associate Sponsor

Established in 1998, Epic is a trendsetter and renowned for innovative software solutions in the region. The company has successfully implemented pioneering mobile banking solutions in Sri Lanka, Malaysia and several other countries winning an unprecedented number of national and international accolades in the recent past including APICTA Gold Award for Asia pacific’s best banking solution. Time and again Epic has proved their technological dominance, product supremacy and entrepreneurial excellence at Asia Pacific level.

About SecureMetric – Exhibitor

SecureMetric is one of the fastest growing digital security technology company. Our products and solutions have been successfully shipped and implemented in more than 35 countries worldwide. As a multinational company, SecureMetric’s technical team consist of top security experts from China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Middle East, Philippines, Singapore, Vietnam and United Kingdom. Cross region and cross culture exposure has made SecureMetric a company that is always ahead. With our innovative products and services, we are poised to help our customers to be the best in their industry.

About ControlCase – Exhibitor

ControlCase provide solutions that address all aspects of IT-GRCM (Governance, Risk Management and Compliance Management). ControlCase is pioneer and largest provider of Managed Compliance Services and Compliance as a Service and a leading provider of Payment Card Industry related compliance services globally.
Magenta Global
Merilynn Choo
65 6391 2549
Contact

http://www.magenta-global.com.sg/GreaterMekongMobilePayments2013/

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